Human erythroblastic precursor cells adhere to fibronectin (Fn) but the exact nature of the receptors mediating this interaction has not been characterized. In this study, we report data showing that immature human erythroblasts express the integrins VLA-4 and VLA-5 and that both these molecules act as fibronectin receptors on these cells. We have recently demonstrated that adhesion to Fn of purified human CFU-E and their immediate progeny preproerythroblasts was inhibited by antibodies directed against the human fibronectin receptor (VLA-5). Here we have extended those results and characterized by immunoprecipitation with specific antibodies the integrins expressed on surface-labeled normal human immature erythroblasts. A polyclonal antibody recognizing the common VLA beta 1 subunit yielded two polypeptides of 120 and 160 kD. Our data further demonstrate that the polypeptide of 160 kD contains alpha subunits corresponding to both alpha 4 and alpha 5. Thus, erythroblast lysates prepared in 0.3% CHAPS and immunoprecipitated with antibodies which specifically recognize the alpha 4 subunit showed a heterodimer with peptides of 120 (beta 1) and 160 kD (alpha 4) and the additional peptides of 70 and 80 kD which usually coprecipitate with the alpha 4 chain. On the other hand, specific anti-alpha 5 antibodies immunoprecipitated an alpha 5/beta 1 complex with peptides of 120 and 160 kD which under reducing conditions migrated as a single band of 130 kD. Similar experiments performed with an erythroleukemic cell line (KU 812) showed that these cells also coexpress both the VLA-4 and VLA-5 members of the integrin family. Furthermore, monoclonal antibodies recognizing the VLA alpha 4 chain blocked the adhesion of immature erythroblasts to Fn-coated surfaces, thus demonstrating that, as VLA-5, VLA-4 is also a functional Fn receptor on these cells.
M Rosemblatt, M H Vuillet-Gaugler, C Leroy, L Coulombel
In the hydropenic kidney, volume efflux from descending vasa recta (DVR) occurs despite an intracapillary oncotic pressure that exceeds hydraulic pressure. That finding has been attributed to small solute gradients which may provide an additional osmotic driving force favoring water transport from DVR plasma to the papillary interstitium. To test this hypothesis, axial gradients of NaCl and urea in the papilla were eliminated by administration of furosemide and saline. DVR were then blocked with paraffin and microperfused at 10 nl/min with a buffer containing albumin, fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled dextran (FITC-Dx), 22Na, and NaCl in a concentration of 0 (hypotonic to the interstitium), 161 (isotonic) or 322 mM (hypertonic). Collectate was obtained from the perfused DVR by micropuncture and the collectate-to-perfusate ratios of FITC-Dx and 22Na were measured. A mathematical model was employed to determine DVR permeability (Ps) and reflection coefficient to NaCl (sigma NaCl). The rate of transport of water from the DVR lumen to the papillary interstitium was 2.8 +/- 0.3 (Nv = 22), -0.19 +/- 0.4 (Nv = 15), and -2.3 +/- 0.3 nl/min (Nv = 21) (mean +/- SE) when perfusate NaCl was 0, 161, or 322 mM, respectively (Nv = number of DVR perfused). The collectate-to-perfusate 22Na concentration ratios were 0.34 +/- 0.04, 0.36 +/- 0.04 and 0.37 +/- 0.03 for those groups, respectively. Based on these data, Ps is calculated to be 60.4 x 10(-5) +/- 4.0 x 10(-5) cm/s and sigma NaCl less than 0.05. The results of this study confirm that transcapillary NaCl concentrations gradients induce water movement across the wall of the DVR.
T L Pallone
Factors that modulate the ability of monosodium urate crystals to stimulate leukocytes could regulate gouty inflammation. Lipoproteins that bear apo B-100 and apo E bind to urate crystals and suppress crystal-neutrophil interaction. In this study, we observed that urate crystals, coated with apo E of monocyte origin, had a diminished ability to stimulate neutrophils. Apo E was also detected on the surface of urate crystals recovered from gout patients. Thus, we analyzed apo E in noninflammatory synovial fluid, and found it to be associated with particles of heterogeneous size and of predominantly alpha and pre-beta electrophoretic mobility. Local articular synthesis of at least a portion of synovial fluid apo E was suggested because (a) the synovial fluid/plasma concentration ratio of apo E was significantly higher than that for both apo B and apo A-I, which are not widely synthesized by extrahepatic tissues, (b) cultured rheumatoid synovial cells in first passage secreted apo E, (c) a portion of synovial fluid apo E was heavily sialylated. We conclude that synovial fluids contain apo E that appears partly of local origin. Apo E binds to urate crystals and could modulate gouty inflammation.
R A Terkeltaub, C A Dyer, J Martin, L K Curtiss
The extent of latent HIV-1 infection in blood T cells and monocytes of 23 seropositive individuals was examined using DNA amplification (PCR) of HIV-1 sequences. Amplified DNA was found in at least one cell type in all seropositives tested, including 13 asymptomatic, 5 ARC, and 5 AIDS patients. Amplification with two or more primer sets from the gag, env, LTR occurred in 21 (91%) patients' T cells and 17 (74%) patients' monocytes. However, amplification with the LTR primers in monocytes was uncommon. Among four patients tested, amplified DNA continued to be detected after a greater than one thousand-fold dilution (less than 500 cells) of both T cell and monocyte lysates. Repeat analysis after 7-9 mo in five seropositives yielded similar findings in T cells and monocytes, but some variation in the efficacy of amplification with individual primers occurred. There was no difference in those 10 patients who were taking AZT, compared to those who were untreated. Our results indicate that a fraction (less than 1%) of both T cells and monocytes in blood carry a latent infection in all stages of HIV-1 disease and can serve as reservoirs throughout AZT therapy.
M J McElrath, R M Steinman, Z A Cohn
The present experiments were undertaken to examine the hypothesis that glucose-induced increased de novo synthesis of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (which has been observed in a number of different tissues, including retinal capillary endothelial cells exposed to elevated glucose levels in vitro) and associated activation of protein kinase C may play a role in mediating glucose-induced vascular functional changes. We report here that twice daily instillation of 30 mM glucose over 10 d in a rat skin chamber granulation tissue model induces approximately a 2.7-fold increase in diacylglycerol (DAG) levels (versus tissues exposed to 5 mM glucose) in association with marked increases in vascular clearance of albumin and blood flow. The glucose-induced increase in DAG levels as well as the vascular functional changes are prevented by addition of 3 mM pyruvate. Pharmacological activation of protein kinase C with the phorbol ester TPA in the presence of 5 mM glucose increases microvascular albumin clearance and blood flow, and similar effects are observed with 1-monoolein (MOG), a pharmacological inhibitor of the catabolism of endogenous DAG. A pharmacological inhibitor of protein kinase C (staurosporine) greatly attenuates the rise in microvascular albumin clearance (but not the rise in blood flow) induced by glucose or by MOG. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that elevated concentrations of glucose increase tissue DAG content via de novo synthesis, resulting in protein kinase C activation, and that these biochemical events are among the factors that generate the increased microvascular albumin clearance.
B A Wolf, J R Williamson, R A Easom, K Chang, W R Sherman, J Turk
Radioiodinated transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) bound to the plasma proteinase inhibitor, alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M), as determined by chromatography on Superose-6 and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When alpha 2M conformational change was induced with methylamine, 125I-TGF-beta 1 binding significantly increased. Intravenously injected 125I-TGF-beta 1 cleared from the circulation of mice rapidly at first; however, intravascular radioactivity stabilized near 20% of the initial level. At necropsy, radioactivity was recovered predominantly in the liver (65%); however, the density of radioactivity (disintegrations per minute/g organ wt) was highest in the lungs. Markedly different results were obtained with purified 125I-TGF-beta 1-alpha 2M-methylamine complex. Clearance of the complex occurred as a first-order process with a t1/2 of 4 min. Greater than 90% of the radioactivity was recovered in the liver. The clearance and distribution of 125I-TGF-beta 1-alpha 2M-methylamine were equivalent to those observed with 125I-alpha 2M-methylamine and 125I-alpha 2M-trypsin. The latter two radioligands clear via specific alpha 2M receptors in the liver. Large molar excesses of alpha 2M-trypsin or alpha 2M-methylamine competed with 125I-TGF-beta 1-alpha 2M-methylamine for plasma clearance. Native alpha 2M, which does not bind to the alpha 2M receptor, did not compete. The receptor binding domain of alpha 2M-methylamine was blocked by chemical modification or enzyme treatment. The resulting alpha 2M preparations still bound 125I-TGF-beta 1; however, the complexes did not clear when injected intravenously in mice. The studies presented here demonstrate that alpha 2M can mediate the plasma clearance of a growth factor via the alpha 2M receptor system. We propose that alpha 2M, the alpha 2M receptor, and proteinases may function as a concerted system to regulate TGF-beta 1 activity and the activity of related factors in vivo.
J LaMarre, M A Hayes, G K Wollenberg, I Hussaini, S W Hall, S L Gonias
Ethanol metabolism in hepatocytes is accompanied by release of a potent lipid chemoattractant for neutrophils. Production of the factor may initiate the inflammation associated with alcoholic hepatitis. In previous studies with a cytosol system from liver, production was blocked by iron chelators as well as by catalase and superoxide dismutase, suggesting the involvement of oxyradicals in formation of the chemoattractant. These studies have examined the role of iron in intact hepatocytes using cells from rats fed an iron-deficient diet, a control diet or a diet containing 3% carbonyl iron. The iron content averaged 1.4 nmol/mg protein in iron-deficient cells, 6.3 in controls and 135.3 in iron-loaded cells. Hepatocytes from all groups were established in primary culture and incubated with ethanol (10 mM); the medium was assayed for chemoattractant activity for human neutrophils. Cultures from chow-fed or iron-loaded animals produced chemoattractant as previously reported. By contrast, chemoattractant production was undetectable in the iron-deficient cultures. Addition of ferric citrate (10 microM) restored chemoattractant production while increasing cellular iron in the deficient cells less than 50% (to 2.3 nmol/mg protein). Addition of desferrioxamine mesylate to cultures of iron-loaded cells ablated chemoattractant production. The data provide evidence for the importance of hepatocellular iron in production of this alcohol-related lipid chemoattractant and suggest that a small intracellular pool of "free" iron plays a critical role.
R Hultcrantz, D M Bissell, F J Roll
Initiation and regulation of localized selective proteolysis is an important effector property of cells of macrophage (Mo) lineage. Among such effector responses is the induced expression of tissue factor (TF) by cells of Mo lineage. In characterizing the regulation of the Mo responses that may influence the magnitude of the effector phase of the cellular immune response, we have identified a role for the cell surface adhesive receptor CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1, CR3) to amplify the induced TF response. Occupancy of CD11b/CD18 by MAb as surrogate ligands does not directly initiate a TF response. In contrast, after either T cell-derived cytokine or LPS as initial signals, engagement of CD11b/CD18 by MAb induces a two- to eight-fold functional enhancement of the TF response in murine and human Mo. This pathway of CD11b/CD18 enhancement of this Mo effector response was also confirmed with recognized ligands for CD11b/CD18 by exposure of Mo to immobilized fibrinogen. A quantitative increase of Mo surface expression of TF was validated by flow cytometry. We suggest that engagement of CD11b/CD18 by complementary ligands including adherence to extracellular matrix, and possibly in antigen-driven TH:Mo collaborative responses, results in the transduction of cellular signals that quantitatively enhance the expression of TF per se and thereby enhance the inflammatory component of Mo mediated response.
S T Fan, T S Edgington
The isoform of Fc gamma RIII (CD16) expressed on PMN has a GPI membrane anchor, and in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) there is a deficiency in Fc gamma RIII expression on PMN. Contrary to expectation, however, CD16 expression is preserved (albeit at reduced levels) in all affected PNH PMN that completely lack the GPI-anchored proteins DAF (CD55) and CD59. Fc gamma RIII negative PMN are not observed in any of the six PNH patients examined in this study. Analysis of the molecular weight of both glycosylated and deglycosylated Fc gamma RIII from PMN with reduced Fc gamma RIII expression indicates no variations in size relative to normal donor Fc gamma RIIIPMN. Indeed, the Fc gamma RIII expressed at intermediate levels is phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC)-sensitive. Thus, there is no evidence suggestive of expression of a transmembrane isoform and all data indicate that Fc gamma RIIIPMN on affected cells in PNH is a GPI-linked isoform. With Fc gamma RIIIPMN expression preserved at reduced levels on affected cells in PNH, PMN from PNH patients retain the capacity to internalize the Fc gamma RIIIPMN-specific probe E-ConA (at reduced levels) as well as IgG-opsonized erythrocytes. Reduced expression of GPI-anchored molecules on PNH PMN is not restricted to Fc gamma RIIIPMN since intermediate levels of CD59 were observed in the PNH PMN that were decay-accelerating factor (DAF)-negative and Fc gamma RIIIPMN intermediate. In addition, discordant expression of GPI-linked molecules in individual cells is not restricted to PMN since DAF+/CD14- monocytes were observed in one PNH patient. These data suggest that, when analyzed on an individual cell level, the GPI anchor defect in PNH is not absolute and must involve either a hierarchy of access of different protein molecules to available GPI anchors, distinct anchor biochemistries for the different proteins, or differential regulation of protein-anchor assembly.
J C Edberg, J E Salmon, M Whitlow, R P Kimberly
Serum SS-A/Ro autoantibodies are commonly found in patients with Sjogren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, neonatal lupus, and subacute cutaneous lupus. Two proteins of 60 and 52 kD have been described as targets for these autoantibodies. To define the 52-kD component unambiguously, cDNA clones were isolated from human HepG2 and MOLT-4 cell cDNA libraries. The identity of cDNA was established by (a) the specificity of the antibody affinity purified from the recombinant protein, (b) the reactivity of the purified recombinant protein with prototype SS-A/Ro sera in immunoblot and ELISA, and (c) two-dimensional gel comigration of MOLT-4 cell 52-kD protein and the recombinant protein. A 1.9-kb cDNA encoded the complete 52-kD protein containing 475 amino acids (Mr 54,082). Putative zinc-finger domains and a leucine zipper motif were identified in the amino-terminal half of the 52-kD protein, implicating its possible association with DNA/RNA. Sequence homology detected between the 52-kD protein and human ret transforming protein, and mouse T cell gene expression down-regulatory protein rpt-1, may provide leads to the functional role of the 52-kD protein in addition to the possibility that these proteins might constitute members of a subfamily of finger proteins.
E K Chan, J C Hamel, J P Buyon, E M Tan
The amino acid and sugar composition of mucins from various organs is similar but not identical. This could arise by one or more of the following: organ-specific processing of a single core protein, organ-specific splicing of a single mucin mRNA, or organ-specific expression of various mucin genes. To begin to investigate the source of this variability, we examined (a) immunological cross-reactivity and (b) cDNA cross-hybridization, among several mucin-secreting organs of the human body. Peptide-directed antibodies raised against both nondeglycosylated (LS) and deglycosylated (HFB) intestinal mucin strongly stained mucous cells in the bronchial epithelium and submucosal glands, indicating homology between mucins of the bronchus and intestine at the peptide level. By screening a bronchus cDNA library with an intestinal mucin cDNA, SMUC-41, we isolated a bronchus mucin cDNA, HAM-1. This cDNA is 96% homologous to the first repeat of SMUC-41. HAM-1 hybridized to restriction fragments of human genomic DNA identical to those hybridizing to SMUC-41 on Southern blots. SMUC-41 also hybridized to polydisperse transcripts in the bronchus, cervix, gall bladder, and mammary gland, indicating mucin homology among all these organs at the RNA level. We conclude that the bronchus and intestine express a common mucin gene, which is likely co-expressed by at least several other mucin-secreting organs.
B H Jany, M W Gallup, P S Yan, J R Gum, Y S Kim, C B Basbaum
Plasma FFA oxidation (measured by infusion of 14C-palmitate) and net lipid oxidation (indirect calorimetry) are both inhibited by insulin. The present study was designed to examine whether these insulin-mediated effects on lipid metabolism resulted from a decline in circulating FFA levels or from a direct action of the hormone on FFA/lipid oxidation. Nine subjects participated in two euglycemic insulin clamps, performed with and without heparin. During each insulin clamp study insulin was infused at two rates, 4 and 20 mU/m2.min for 120 min. The studies were performed with indirect calorimetry and 3-3H-glucose and 14C-palmitate infusion. During the control study plasma FFA fell from 610 +/- 46 to 232 +/- 42 to 154 +/- 27 mumol/liter, respectively. When heparin was infused basal plasma FFA concentration remained constant. During the control study, FFA/lipid oxidation rates decreased in parallel with the fall in the plasma FFA concentration. During the insulin/heparin study, plasma 14C-FFA oxidation remained unchanged while net lipid oxidation decreased. In conclusion, when the plasma FFA concentration is maintained unchanged by heparin infusion, insulin has no direct effect on FFA turnover and disposal. These results thus suggest that plasma FFA oxidation is primarily determined by the plasma FFA concentration, while net lipid oxidation is regulated by both the plasma FFA and the insulin level.
L C Groop, R C Bonadonna, M Shank, A S Petrides, R A DeFronzo
Pure macrophage-derived foam cells (MFC) were isolated from the aortas of rabbits made atherosclerotic by balloon deendothelialization followed by diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. The MFC were isolated under sterile conditions using an enzymatic digestion procedure and discontinuous density gradient centrifugation. The purity of the MFC preparations was verified immunocytochemically with the macrophage specific monoclonal antibody RAM-11. MFC plated in medium containing 0.5% FCS for 24 h contained approximately 600 micrograms cholesterol per mg cell protein, 80% of which was esterified cholesterol. The MFC specifically degraded low density lipoprotein (LDL), acetyl-LDL, copper oxidized LDL, and beta-very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL) at rates comparable to mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) in 5-h assays. MFC within sections of the atherosclerotic lesions from the ballooned rabbits as well as the MFC isolated from the same lesions in the presence of antioxidants, exhibited positive immunoreactivity with polyclonal guinea pig antisera and mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against malondialdehyde-LDL, and 4-hydroxynonal-LDL. The MFC also exhibited the capacity to induce the oxidation of LDL at rates comparable to those exhibited by MPM and rabbit aortic endothelial cells. These data provide direct evidence that arterial wall macrophages express modified LDL receptors in vivo, contain epitopes found in oxidized-LDL and are capable of oxidizing LDL even when maximally loaded with cholesterol.
M E Rosenfeld, J C Khoo, E Miller, S Parthasarathy, W Palinski, J L Witztum
We developed a mathematical model of the reticulocyte, seeking to explain how a cell with similar volume but much higher ionic traffic than the mature red cell (RBC) regulates its volume, pH, and ion content in physiological and abnormal conditions. Analysis of the fluxbalance required by reticulocytes to conserve volume and composition predicted the existence of previously unsuspected Na(+)-dependent Cl- entry mechanisms. Unlike mature RBCs, reticulocytes did not tend to return to their original state after brief perturbations. The model predicted hysteresis and drift in cell pH, volume, and ion contents after transient alterations in membrane permeability or medium composition; irreversible cell dehydration could thus occur by brief K+ permeabilization, transient medium acidification, or the replacement of external Na+ with an impermeant cation. Both the hysteresis and drift after perturbations were shown to depend on the pHi dependence of the K:Cl cotransport, a major reticulocyte transporter. This behavior suggested a novel mechanism for the generation of irreversibly sickled cells directly from reticulocytes, rather than in a stepwise, progressive manner from discocytes. Experimental tests of the model's predictions and the hypothesis are described in the following paper.
V L Lew, C J Freeman, O E Ortiz, R M Bookchin
To explore our hypothesis of a direct reticulocyte origin of irreversibly sickled cells (ISCs), we fractionated light, reticulocyte-rich, and discocyte-rich sickle anemia red cells on Stractan gradients, and examined the effects of deoxygenation-induced sickling, external Ca2+, acidification, and replacing external Na+ by impermeant N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMG+). Sickling permeabilized light reticulocyte-rich cells to cations (Na+, K+, and Ca2+) more than discocytes; without external Ca2+, Na+ influx matched K+ efflux, with stable cell volume; with Ca2+, many light, low hemoglobin (Hb) F reticulocytes dehydrated rapidly (preventable by quinine, a Ca2(+)-dependent K+ channel inhibitor). Acidification of oxygenated discocytes (high mean Hb F) and reticulocyte-rich fractions yielded denser, reticulocyte-enriched cells with lower Hb F (as in light reticulocyte or dense ISC-rich fractions). Light cells shrank when NMG+ replaced Na+, supporting predictions of a Na(+)-dependent volume control system. Demonstration of sickling-induced, Ca2(+)-dependent dehydration of Hb F-free reticulocytes, and conservation of acid-stimulated K:Cl cotransport among low Hb F, reticulocyte-enriched cells in discocyte fractions support the hypothesis. Ancillary new findings included heparin stimulation of sickling-induced Na+ and K+ permeabilizations, and Ca2+ inhibition of the Na+ leak.
R M Bookchin, O E Ortiz, V L Lew
Metabolic balance studies were carried out to determine the interrelationships of thyroid hormone-induced lipogenesis, lipolysis, and energy balance in the free-living rat. Intraperitoneal doses of 15 micrograms triiodothyronine (T3)/100 g body wt per d caused an increase in caloric intake from 26.5 +/- 1.7 (mean +/- SEM) kcal/100 g per d to 38.1 +/- 1.5 kcal/100 g per d. Food intake, however, rose only after 4-6 d of treatment and was maximal by the 8th day. In contrast, total body basal oxygen consumption rose by 24 h and reached a maximum by 4 d. Since total urinary nitrogen excretion and hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA did not rise, gluconeogenesis from protein sources did not supply the needed substrate for the early increase in calorigenesis. Total body fat stores fell approximately 50% by the 6th day of treatment and could account for the entire increase in caloric expenditure during the initial period of T3 treatment. Total body lipogenesis increased within 1 d and reached a plateau 4-5 d after the start of T3 treatment. 15-19% of the increased caloric intake was channeled through lipogenesis, assuming glucose to be the sole substrate for lipogenesis. The metabolic cost of the increased lipogenesis, however, accounted for only 3-4% of the T3-induced increase in calorigenesis. These results suggest that fatty acids derived from adipose tissue are the primary source of substrate for thyroid hormone-induced calorigenesis and that the early increase in lipogenesis serves simply to maintain fat stores. Since the mRNAs coding for lipogenic enzymes rise many hours before oxygen consumption and lipolysis, these results suggest that T3 acts at least in part by an early coordinate induction of the genes responsible for these processes.
J H Oppenheimer, H L Schwartz, J T Lane, M P Thompson
High affinity binding sites for endothelin (ET) were identified on rat liver plasma membranes. Binding of 125I-ET-1 with its site was specific, saturable, and time dependent (kobs = 0.019 +/- 0.001 min-1), but dissociation of receptor-bound ligand was minimal. A single class of high affinity binding sites for 125I-ET-1 was identified with an apparent Kd of 32.4 +/- 9.8 pM and a Bmax of 1084 +/- 118 fmol/mg protein. ET-3 and big-ET-1 (1-38) (human) inhibited 125I-ET-1 binding with IC50 values of 1.85 +/- 1.03 nM and 43 +/- 6 nM, respectively. Aequorin measurements of cytosolic free Ca2+ in single, isolated rat hepatocytes showed that ET-1 at subnanomolar concentrations induced a series of repetitive, sustained Ca2+ transients. ET-1 had no effect on cAMP production. Finally, ET-1 caused a rapid and sustained stimulation of glycogenolysis in rat hepatocytes. A 1.8-fold maximal increase in glycogen phosphorylase alpha was observed at 1 pM ET-1, with an EC50 of 0.03 pM. Stimulation of the enzyme was specific for ET-1 since the order of potency of related peptides was similar to that in binding experiments (ET-1 greater than ET-3 greater than big ET-1). These data constitute the first demonstration of the presence of ET-1 binding sites in liver which is associated with a rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ and a potent glycogenolytic effect. We conclude that ET-1 behaves as a typical Ca2+ mobilizing hormone in liver.
C Serradeil-Le Gal, C Jouneaux, A Sanchez-Bueno, D Raufaste, B Roche, A M Préaux, J P Maffrand, P H Cobbold, J Hanoune, S Lotersztajn
The effect of brief myocardial ischemia on the expression of heat shock protein (HSP 70) was examined in an in vivo rabbit model of myocardial ischemia using Northern blotting. Functional studies were carried out in the open-chested anesthetized rabbit. The large marginal branch of the left circumflex was occluded four times for 5 min. Using piezoelectric crystals implanted midwall in the ischemic zone, end-diastolic length, end-systolic length, and percent segmental shortening were assessed. Expression of HSP 70 was measured by Northern blotting. A single 5-min coronary occlusion doubled the expression of HSP 70 whereas four cycles of 5 min of ischemia/5 min of reperfusion resulted in a threefold increase in HSP 70 mRNA (P less than 0.001). Measurements with the piezoelectric crystals showed mild myocardial dysfunction concomitant with the increase in HSP 70. This increase in HSP 70 mRNA after repetitive brief ischemia was transient, occurring as early as 1 h and returning to baseline by 24 h after ischemia. Western blot analysis with a monoclonal antibody to HSP 70 was used to compare sham and postischemic myocardial HSP 70 levels. Changes in the amount of HSP 70 were evident as early as 2 h and were even more striking at 24 h.
A A Knowlton, P Brecher, C S Apstein
This study examines the hypothesis that mediators from lung endothelial cells could promote lung collagen synthesis in pulmonary fibrosis. Since bleomycin induces pulmonary fibrosis in humans and animals, the effects of this drug on endothelial cells were examined. Endothelial cell conditioned media were prepared in the presence of various doses of bleomycin, and tested for their ability to stimulate lung fibroblast collagen synthesis. The results show a dose-dependent stimulation of endothelial cell secretion of collagen synthesis stimulatory activity by bleomycin, which peaked at a dose greater than or equal to 100 ng/ml. Stimulation was selective for collagenous protein synthesis. Gel filtration analysis showed most of the activity to reside in fractions with an estimated molecular mass range of 10-27 kD. The activity was inhibited by anti-transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)antibody, but not by nonimmune control IgG. The presence of TGF-beta was confirmed using the mink lung epithelial cell assay. Northern blotting revealed significant increases in TGF-beta mRNA in bleomycin-stimulated endothelial cells. Thus in vitro stimulation of endothelial cells by bleomycin upregulates TGF-beta production, presumably by increased transcription. In view of the chemotactic and matrix synthesis stimulatory properties of this cytokine, such an increase in TGF-beta production may play an important role in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.
S H Phan, M Gharaee-Kermani, F Wolber, U S Ryan
To determine whether exposure to chronic hypoxia and subsequent development of pulmonary hypertension induces alterations of endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat pulmonary vascular bed, we studied isolated lung preparations from rats exposed to either room air (controls) or hypoxia (H) during 1 wk (1W-H), 3 wk (3W-H), or 3W-H followed by 48 h recovery to room air (3WH + R). In lungs pretreated with meclofenamate (3 microM), the endothelium-dependent vasodilator responses to acetylcholine (10(-9)-10(-6) M) and ionophore A23187 (10(-9)-10(-7) M) were examined during conditions of increased tone by U46619 (50 pmol/min). Acetylcholine or A23187 produced dose-dependent vasodilation in control lungs, this response was reduced in group 1W-H (P less than 0.02), abolished in group 3W-H (P less than 0.001), and restored in group 3WH + R. In contrast, the endothelium-independent vasodilator agent sodium nitroprusside remained fully active in group 3W-H. The pressor response to 300 pM endothelin was greater in group 3W-H than in controls (6.8 +/- 0.5 mmHg vs. 1.6 +/- 0.2 mmHg, P less than 0.001) but was not potentiated by the endothelium-dependent relaxing factor (EDRF) antagonists: hydroquinone (10(-4) M); methylene blue (10(-4) M); and pyrogallol (3 x 10(-5) M) as it was in controls. It was similar to controls in group 3W-H + R. Our results demonstrate that hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension is associated with a loss of EDRF activity in pulmonary vessels, with a rapid recovery on return to a normoxic environment.
S Adnot, B Raffestin, S Eddahibi, P Braquet, P E Chabrier
Previous studies of Pneumocystis carinii have identified the major surface antigen of rat and human isolates as proteins of 116,000 and 95,000 mol wt, respectively, that are antigenically not identical. In this study both rat and human P. carinii proteins were purified by solubilization with zymolyase followed by molecular sieve and ion exchange chromatography. The native proteins had an apparent mol wt of 290,000 or greater, based on molecular sieve studies as well as cross-linking studies. Both proteins were glycoproteins; treatment with endoglycosidase H resulted in a 9% decrease in mol wt. The carbohydrate composition of the rat P. carinii glycoprotein was distinct from the human isolate; glucose, mannose, galactose, and glucosamine occurred in approximately equimolar ratios in the human P. carinii protein, whereas glucose and mannose were the predominant sugars of the rat P. carinii protein. To evaluate humoral immune responses to the human P. carinii protein, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using purified protein was developed. Some, but not all, patients who subsequently developed P. carinii pneumonia demonstrated a serum antibody response to the surface antigen. Nearly all subjects without a history of P. carinii pneumonia had no detectable antibodies. Purified P. carinii proteins will greatly facilitate the investigation of host-P. carinii interactions.
B Lundgren, G Y Lipschik, J A Kovacs
Thrombospondin (TSP) binds to U937 monocytic cells in a Ca2(+)-enhancible and EDTA-inhibitable manner (Silverstein, R. L., and R. L. Nachman. 1987. J. Clin. Invest. 79:867-874; Silverstein, R. L., A. S. Asch, and R. L. Nachman. 1989. J. Clin. Invest. 84:546-552). We reproduced the results when RPMI cell culture medium, but not when HBSS was used as binding medium. Addition of 1 mM Ca2+ to RPMI medium increased the binding of TSP to suspended U937 cells more than eightfold; the increase was blocked by EDTA but not by heparin. Further studies showed that addition of 1 mM Ca2+ to RPMI medium resulted in an insoluble precipitate, which did not form when EDTA was present or when 1 mM extra Ca2+ was added to HBSS. TSP bound to the precipitate in a saturable and specific manner. The precipitate enhanced binding of TSP to MG63 osteosarcoma cells in a monolayer binding assay. Enhancement of binding in the monolayer assay was observed for fibronectin and vitronectin as well. Our data indicate that there is not a specific Ca2(+)-dependent TSP receptor on U937 cell surface. Instead, the extra binding enhanced by Ca2+ is due to the formation of insoluble salts in the medium.
X Sun, D F Mosher
Two cDNA clones encoding the 52-kD form of a protein present in human Ro/SSA ribonucleoprotein complexes were cloned from a lambda gt11 human thymocyte cDNA library. These clones reacted with lupus patient sera which had anti-52-kD Ro/SSA antibodies, and with affinity-purified anti-52-kD Ro/SSA antibodies. Moreover, affinity-purified antibodies isolated from isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside-induced proteins of these clones reacted only with the 52-kD protein of lymphocytes in Western blots and precipitated Ro/SSA hY RNAs, confirming that the clones encode a 52-kD Ro/SSA antigen. The cDNA contains a single open reading frame of 1,425 nucleotides and encodes a predicted 475-amino acid polypeptide with a molecular mass of 54,108 D. This protein appears unique in that both a zinc finger and leucine zipper motif are present on this protein. Surprisingly, no homology was found between the 52-kD Ro/SSA gene or protein and three published 60-kD Ro/SSA sequences. However, significant similarity of the 52-kD Ro/SSA was detected with human rfp and mouse rpt-1. These three proteins each contain similar zinc finger motifs in approximately their first 145 amino acid residues. The cDNA and the protein expressed therefrom are useful in the analysis of the structural and functional properties of this autoantigen.
K Itoh, Y Itoh, M B Frank
Forearm and systemic adipose tissue free fatty acid (FFA) release was measured in eight nonobese, six lower-body obese, and eight upper-body obese women under basal, hyperinsulinemic, and hypoinsulinemic conditions to determine whether forearm fat is regulated in a similar manner as whole body fat. Results: Adipose tissue palmitate release was greater from forearm than whole body (5.97 +/- 0.75 vs. 3.84 +/- 0.34 mumol.kg fat-1.min-1, respectively, P less than 0.005, n = 22 subjects). Systemic palmitate release, relative to fat mass, was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater in nonobese than upper-body obese, and upper-body obese than lower-body obese women, and forearm adipose tissue palmitate release followed the same pattern. Hyperinsulinemia suppressed systemic and forearm lipolysis to similar degrees, however, hypoinsulinemia consistently increased systemic palmitate flux without increasing forearm palmitate release. These results confirm the heterogeneity of adipose tissue in an in vivo model and emphasize the need to consider which adipose tissue depots are responsible for the differences in systemic FFA flux in obese and nonobese humans.
M D Jensen
The mechanisms by which T lymphocytes acquire the capacity to produce interleukin 4 (IL-4) and other lymphokines during intrathymic and extrathymic development are poorly understood. To gain insight into this process, we determined the capacity of human neonatal and adult T lineage cell populations to produce IL-4 after polyclonal activation. IL-2 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production were studied in parallel, since their production by neonatal T cells is known to be similar or diminished, respectively, compared to adult T cells. Production of IL-4 by neonatal CD4+ T cells and IFN-gamma by neonatal CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was markedly lower compared with analogous adult cell populations, whereas IL-2 production was similar. Transcription of IL-4, as determined by nuclear run-on assays, and IL-4 mRNA-containing cells, as determined by in situ hybridization, were undetectable in neonatal T cells, whereas both were detectable in adult T cells. IFN-gamma transcription and IFN-gamma mRNA-containing cells were reduced in neonatal T cells compared with adult T cells. Reduced lymphokine production by neonatal T cells correlated with their lack of a CD45R- (putative memory T cell) population; cells with this surface phenotype comprised 30-40% of the adult CD4+ T cells and were highly enriched for IL-4 and IFN-gamma, but not IL-2 production. IL-4, IFN-gamma, and IL-2 mRNA expression by neonatal CD4+CD8- thymocytes was similar to that found in circulating neonatal CD4+ T cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that the extrathymic generation of memory T cells during postnatal life may result in an increased capacity for IL-4 and IFN-gamma gene expression. In addition, IFN-gamma and IL-2 mRNA were significantly more abundant than IL-4 mRNA in activated neonatal CD4+CD8- thymocytes and CD4+ T cells, as well as adult CD4+ CD45R- T cells. Therefore, the capacity of T lineage cells to express the IL-4 gene may be more restricted compared to other lymphokine genes beginning in intrathymic development. This restricted capacity appears to persist during postnatal extrathymic maturation of T cells.
D B Lewis, C C Yu, J Meyer, B K English, S J Kahn, C B Wilson
Genetic complementation of fibroblasts from patients with methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) defines a unique class of allelic mutations arising from mutations at the locus encoding the methylmalonyl coenzyme A (CoA) mutase apoenzyme. Various phenotypes of MMA have been delineated including complete absence of enzyme activity (mut0) and abnormal enzyme activity with an elevated Km for adenosylcobalamin (mut-). We describe genetic studies on a cell line (WG1130) from a patient with mut0 MMA which exhibited an unusual complementation phenotype, complementing with three of nine mut0 cell lines and four of five mut- cell lines. This suggests that interallelic complementation occurs between mutant alleles in WG1130 and subsets of alleles associated with both mut0 and mut- phenotypes. The methylmalonyl CoA mutase cDNA was cloned from WG1130 and found to contain a G354----A (Arg93----His) mutation. Gene transfer of this mutant clone into primary fibroblasts from patients with MMA confirms that this mutation expresses a mut0 phenotype when transferred into a mut0 cell line with low levels of mRNA but can contribute to apoenzyme function when transferred into mut cell lines which show correction with WG1130 by somatic cell complementation. These results point to further heterogeneity within both mut0 and mut- and may enable identification of mutations affecting discrete components of apoenzyme function.
M L Raff, A M Crane, R Jansen, F D Ledley, D S Rosenblatt
The synthesis and secretion of an atriopeptin(AP)-like prohormone (AP126ir) has been demonstrated in rat neonatal renal cell cultures. AP126ir could be detected in the cellular extract and the medium from cultured kidney cells of neonatal and adult rats using an enzyme immunoassay specific for cardiac AP prohormone. On reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, the AP obtained from the extract and the medium comigrated with cardiac AP prohormone. Incubation of the renal AP in the medium with thrombin resulted in the generation of a single low molecular mass peak which migrated with the cardiac carboxy-terminal 28-amino acid AP. Neonatal kidney cells pulsed with [35S]methionine secreted radiolabeled AP126ir, which was detected by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis chromatography. Incubation of neonatal kidney cell cultures with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide resulted in a significant decrease in both the cellular and media AP. No decrease in cellular and media AP was detected when neonatal atrial cultures were treated with cycloheximide. These data demonstrate the de novo synthesis of an AP prohormone-like protein in neonatal rat kidney cultures. Furthermore, unlike the atria, kidney cells appear to secrete AP solely by constitutive means. In primary adult rat kidney cultures, most of AP126ir was detected in the cortical tubule fraction demonstrating that these cells secrete AP126ir in the adult rat kidney. We hypothesize that the renal AP may be important as an autocrine or paracrine regulator of renal function.
D Ritter, P Needleman, J E Greenwald
Erythroid burst-promoting activity (BPA) is released from B lymphocytes in soluble (sBPA) and membrane-bound (mBPA) forms. To study intracellular processes involved in production of these physically separable factors, we measured their time course release into serum-free medium from B cells that were pulse-exposed for 5-240 min to nonmitogenic base medium or inhibitors of energy-dependent metabolism (2,4-dinitrophenol, sodium azide, and 2-deoxy-D-glucose), transcription and translation (actinomycin D and cycloheximide), replicative DNA synthesis (cytosine arabinoside), or posttranslational processing (monensin). mBPA and sBPA were initially detectable after 1 and 2 h, respectively. Maximum cumulative levels of 8 +/- 0.6 and 9 +/- 1.0 U/ml, respectively, were reached after 8 h. In contrast, cumulative mBPA and sBPA levels in medium prepared from cells treated with metabolic inhibitors were reduced by up to 90%. Both surface exfoliation and mBPA expression by intact plasma membranes were diminished. Whereas pulse-exposure to cytosine arabinoside had no effect, treatment with actinomycin D or cycloheximide abolished BPA expression. Exposure to monensin reduced mBPA and sBPA levels to zero in a concentration-and time-dependent fashion. We conclude that production and release of BPA is an energy-dependent process, requiring mRNA synthesis and translation and posttranslational remodeling of the protein but not replicative DNA synthesis.
N Dainiak, S Sorba
To test the hypothesis that mononuclear cells are stimulated to release interleukin 1 (IL-1) by bone fragments released in the bone microenvironment during the remodeling cycle, we have investigated the effects of bone matrix and some of its constituents on IL-1 secretin from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Increases in IL-1 activity were observed when either PBMC or adherent monocytes, but not lymphocytes depleted of monocytes, were co-cultured with either human or rat bone particles but not with latex particles of similar size. Co-culture of PBMC with bone particles in a transwell system where the cells were physically separated from the bone particles, or with osteoblast- or osteoclast-covered bone particles, did not stimulate IL-1 release, indicating that a physical contact between PBMC and the bone surface is required for eliciting IL-1 release. This was confirmed by the finding of a lower stimulatory effect of bone particles pretreated with etidronate, a bisphosphonate which decreases the bone binding capacity of PBMC. Constituents of bone matrix, such as collagen fragments, hydroxyproline, and, to a lesser extent, transforming growth factor-beta, but not osteocalcin, alpha 2HS glycoprotein, fragments of either bone sialoprotein or osteopontin, and fibronectin, stimulated PBMC IL-1 release in a dose-dependent fashion. Collagen-stimulated IL-1 release was partially and specifically inhibited by a monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha 2 beta 1-integrin cell surface collagen receptor. These data demonstrate that products of bone resorption, known to be chemotactic for mononuclear cells, stimulate PBMC IL-1 activity. These findings may help explain previous documentation of increased IL-1 secretion by circulating monocytes obtained from patients with high turnover osteoporosis.
R Pacifici, A Carano, S A Santoro, L Rifas, J J Jeffrey, J D Malone, R McCracken, L V Avioli
Recent studies have revealed a role for platelets and the platelet-adhesive proteins, fibronectin and von Willebrand factor (vWF) in platelet-tumor cell interaction in vitro and metastasis in vivo. The present report documents the effect of thrombin treatment of platelets on this interaction in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, thrombin at 100-1,000 mU/ml maximally stimulated the adhesion of six different tumor cell lines from three different species two- to fivefold. As little as 1-10 mU/ml was effective. The effect of thrombin was specific (inhibitable by hirudin, dansyl-arginine N-(3-ethyl-1,5 pentanediyl) amide and unreactive with the inactive thrombin analogue N-P-tosyl-L-phenylchloromethylketone-thrombin and D-phenylalanyl-L-propyl-L-arginine chloromethylketone-thrombin (PPACK-thrombin), and required high-affinity thrombin receptors (competition with PPACK-thrombin but not with N-P-tosyl-L-lysine-chloromethyl-ketone-thrombin). Functionally active thrombin was required on the platelet surface. Binding of tumor cells to thrombin-activated platelets was inhibitable by agents known to interfere with the platelet GPIIb-GPIIIa integrin: monoclonal antibody 10E5, tetrapeptide RGDS and gamma chain fibrinogen decapeptide LGGAKQAGDV, as well as polyclonal antibodies against the platelet adhesive ligands, fibronectin and vWF. In vivo, thrombin at 250-500 mU per animal increased murine pulmonary metastases fourfold with CT26 colon carcinoma cells and 68-413-fold with B16 amelanotic melanoma cells. Thus, thrombin amplifies tumor-platelet adhesion in vitro two- to fivefold via occupancy of high-affinity platelet thrombin receptors, and modulation of GPIIb-GPIIIa adhesion via an RGD-dependent mechanism. In vivo, thrombin enhances tumor metastases 4-413-fold with two different tumor cell lines.
M L Nierodzik, A Plotkin, F Kajumo, S Karpatkin
Our aim was to define mechanisms whereby conjugated estrogens (Premarin, exogenous estrogen; Ayerst Laboratories, New York) increase the risk of developing cholesterol gallstones and to determine the role, if any, of dietary cholesterol. We studied gallbladder motor function, biliary lipid composition and secretion, cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and esterification by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the clearance of chylomicron remnants, and bile acid kinetics in 29 anovulatory women. 13 were studied on both a low (443 +/- 119 mumol/d) and high (2,021 +/- 262 mumol/d) cholesterol diet. Premarin increased the lithogenic index of bile (P less than 0.05), increased biliary cholesterol secretion (P less than 0.005), lowered chenodeoxycholate (CDCA) pool (P less than 0.001) and synthesis (P less than 0.05), altered biliary bile acid composition [( CA + DCA]/CDCA increases, P less than 0.005), stimulated cholesterol esterification (P less than 0.03), and enhanced the clearance of chylomicron remnants (P = 0.07). Increases in dietary cholesterol stimulated the biliary secretion of cholesterol (P = 0.07), bile acid (P less than 0.05), phospholipid (P = 0.07), and as a result, did not alter lithogenic index. The reduction in CDCA pool and synthesis by Premarin was reversed by increasing dietary cholesterol. Off Premarin, only 24% of the increase in cholesterol entering the body in the diet was recovered as biliary cholesterol or newly synthesized bile acid. On Premarin, 68% of this increase in cholesterol was recovered as these biliary lipids. We conclude that Premarin increases biliary cholesterol by enhancing hepatic lipoprotein uptake and inhibiting bile acid synthesis. These actions of Premarin divert dietary cholesterol into bile.
G T Everson, C McKinley, F Kern Jr
To assess the importance of the intact mitral subvalvular apparatus for left ventricular (LV) energetics, data from nine open-chest ejecting canine hearts were analyzed using piezoelectric crystals to measure LV volume. After mitral valve replacement with preservation of all chordae tendineae, baseline LV function was assessed during transient caval occlusion: A quadratic fit of the LV end-systolic pressure-volume data was used to determine the curvilinear end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (ESPVR). All chordae were then divided with exteriorized snares. Reassessment revealed deterioration of global LV pump function: (a) the coefficient of nonlinearity, decreased (less negative) by 90% (P = 0.06); (b) slope of the curvilinear ESPVR at the volume axis intercept, decreased by 75% (P = 0.01); and V100, end-systolic volume at 100 mmHg end-systolic pressure, increased by 42% (P less than 0.02). Similarly, preload recruitable stroke work fell significantly (-14%) and Vw1,000 (end-diastolic volume [EDV] at stroke work [SW] of 1,000 mmHg.ml) rose by 17% (P less than 0.04). With respect to LV energetics, the total mechanical energy generated by the ventricle decreased, as indicated by a decline in the slope of the pressure volume area (PVA)-EDV relationship (120 +/- 13 [mean +/- SD] vs. 105 +/- 13 mmHg, P less than 0.001). Additionally, comparison of LV SW and PVA from single beats with matched EDV showed that the efficiency of converting mechanical energy to external work (SW/PVA) declined by 14% (0.65 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.56 +/- 0.08, P less than 0.03) after chordal division. While effective systemic arterial elastance, Ea, also fell significantly (P = 0.03) after the chordae were severed, the Ea/Ees ratio (Ees = slope of the linear ESPVR) increased by 124% (0.91 +/- 0.53 vs. 2.04 +/- 0.87, P = 0.001) due to a proportionally greater decline in Ees. This indicates a mismatch in ventriculo-arterial interaction, deviating from that required for maximal external output (viz., Ea/Ees = 1). These adverse effects of chordal division may be related to the observed changes in LV geometry (i.e., eccentricity). We conclude that the intact mitral subvalvular apparatus is important in optimizing LV energetics and ventriculo-vascular coupling in addition to the enhancement of LV systolic performance.
K L Yun, M A Niczyporuk, G E Sarris, J I Fann, D C Miller
It has been suggested that a sustained rise in resting levels of cytosolic calcium [Ca2+]i of pancreatic islets is responsible for impaired insulin secretion in chronic renal failure (CRF). Evidence for such an event is lacking and the mechanisms through which it may affect insulin secretion are not known. Studies were conducted in normal, CRF, and normocalcemic, parathyroidectomized (PTX) CRF rats to answer these questions. Resting levels of [Ca2+]i of islets from CRF rats were higher (P less than 0.01) than in control of CRF-PTX rats. [3H]2-deoxyglucose uptake and cAMP production by islets were not different in the three groups. Insulin content of, and glucose-induced insulin secretion by islets from CRF rats was lower (P less than 0.01) than in control and CRF-PTX rats. In contrast, glyceraldehyde-induced insulin release by CRF islets was normal. Basal ATP content, both glucose-stimulated ATP content and ATP/ADP ratio, net lactic acid output, Vmax of phosphofructokinase-1, and Ca2+ ATPase of islets from CRF rats were lower (P less than 0.02-less than 0.01) than in normal or CRF-PTX animals. Data show that: (a) Glucose but not glyceraldehyde-induced insulin secretion is impaired in CRF; (b) the impairment in glucose-induced insulin release in CRF is due to a defect in the metabolism of glucose; (c) this latter defect is due to reduced ATP content induced partly by high [Ca2+]i of islets; and (d) the high [Ca2+]i in islets of CRF rats is due to augmented PTH-induced calcium entry into cells and decreased calcium extrusion from the islets secondary to reduced activity of the Ca2+ ATPase.
G Z Fadda, S M Hajjar, A F Perna, X J Zhou, L G Lipson, S G Massry
In the obese state profound metabolic disturbances exist and it is not known how this disrupted metabolism in obese subjects (body mass index greater than 30) may change their ability to respond to the superimposed, injury-induced stress. Understanding the mechanisms that modify the metabolic parameters in traumatized obese patients is essential in their nutritional assessment and further treatment. We have investigated in 7 obese and 10 nonobese multiple trauma patients, on a whole-body level, the energy metabolism, protein kinetics, and lipolysis in the early catabolic "flow phase" of severe injury when they were receiving maintenance fluids without calories or nitrogen. Traumatized obese patients mobilized relatively more protein and less fat compared with nonobese subjects. A relative block both in lipolysis and fat oxidation is experienced by injured obese patients that results in a shift to preferential use of proteins and carbohydrates. Reduced endogenous protein synthetic efficiency observed in obese patients implies increased protein recycling. Thus obese patients could not effectively use their most abundant fat fuel sources and have to depend on other fuel sources. The nutritional management of obese trauma victims should therefore be tailored towards provision of enough glucose calories to spare protein.
M Jeevanandam, D H Young, W R Schiller
The platelet fibrinogen receptor is composed of a complex of glycoproteins (GP) IIb and IIIa on the surface of platelets. Deficient function of this receptor prevents normal platelet aggregation, resulting in Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT). In this paper, we describe a black thrombasthenic patient who is either homozygous or hemizygous for a deletion within the GPIIb gene. Initial Western blot analysis of platelet proteins from this patient did not detect any GPIIb, but did detect small amounts of GPIIIa of normal mobility. Quantitation of vitronectin receptor (VNR) demonstrated that this thrombasthenic patient had approximately 1.5-2 times the number of these receptors per platelet compared with controls, a finding that has previously been noted in other thrombasthenic patients with defects in GPIIb. Genomic Southern blot studies demonstrated a deletion in the GPIIb gene of approximately 4.5 kilobasepairs (kb). Analysis of the isolated GPIIb gene demonstrated that the deletion begins between two Alu repeats within intron 1 and ends in intron 9. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies using platelet RNA and oligonucleotides directed to both the 5' and 3' ends of the GPIIb cDNA sequence easily detected GPIIb transcript, suggesting that the genomic deletion of exons 2-9 does not significantly decrease the level of the GPIIb mRNA. Sequence analysis of PCR-generated GPIIb cDNA showed that a cryptic AG splice acceptor sequence was being utilized, resulting in a transcript that contained a portion of introns 1 and 9, as well as having a deletion of exons 2-9. Unlike the GPIIb gene, the GPIIIa gene appears to be intact by Southern blot analysis. PCR studies using platelet RNA and oligonucleotides directed to the GPIIIa cDNA sequence demonstrated the presence of GPIIIa mRNA. In summary, the thrombasthenic state in this patient appears to be due to a GPIIb gene deletion resulting in an abnormal transcript and no detectable platelet GPIIb. Platelet GPIIIa levels were secondarily low presumably due to the known instability of GPIIIa in the absence of GPIIb.
C D Burk, P J Newman, S Lyman, J Gill, B S Coller, M Poncz
Recent experimental work has identified a novel intracellular binding site for the synthetic progestin, Gestodene, that appears to be uniquely expressed in human breast cancer cells. Gestodene is shown here to inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent fashion, but has no effect on endocrine-responsive human endometrial cancer cells. Gestodene induced a 90-fold increase in the secretion of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) by T47D human breast cancer cells. Other synthetic progestins had no effect, indicating that this induction is mediated by the novel Gestodene binding site and not by the conventional progesterone receptor. Furthermore, in four breast cancer cell lines, the extent of induction of TGF-beta correlated with intracellular levels of Gestodene binding site. No induction of TGF-beta was observed with the endometrial cancer line, HECl-B, which lacks the Gestodene binding site, but which expresses high levels of progesterone receptor. The inhibition of growth of T47D cells by Gestodene is partly reversible by a polyclonal antiserum to TGF-beta. These data indicate that the growth-inhibitory action of Gestodene may be mediated in part by an autocrine induction of TGF-beta.
A A Colletta, L M Wakefield, F V Howell, D Danielpour, M Baum, M B Sporn
The melanoma cell line FO-1 does not express HLA class I antigens and does not acquire them on the cell surface after incubation with IFN-gamma. Immunochemical studies showed that FO-1 cells synthesize HLA class I heavy chain, but do not synthesize beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-mu). The latter abnormality is associated with lack of beta 2-mu mRNA which remains undetectable in FO-1 cells incubated with IFN-gamma. The defect was identified as a genetic lesion in the B2m gene, since DNA hybridization analysis detected a deletion of the first exon of the 5'-flanking region, and of a segment of the first intron of the B2m gene. HLA class I antigen expression was reconstituted on melanoma cells FO-1 after transfection with the wild-type mouse B2m gene, thereby confirming the abnormality of the endogenous B2m gene. The defect identified in FO-1 cells is distinct from that underlying the lack of HLA class I antigen expression by lymphoblastoid cells Daudi, but is remarkably similar to that causing lack of H-2 class I antigen expression by mouse lymphoblastoid cells R1 (TL-). These results suggest that genetic recombination in the 5' region of the B2m gene is a recurrent mechanism in B2m gene defects. In addition to contributing to our understanding of molecular abnormalities in HLA class I antigen expression by melanoma cells, FO-1 cells represent a useful model for analyzing the role of HLA class I antigens in the biology of melanoma cells and in their interaction with cells of the immune system.
C M D'Urso, Z G Wang, Y Cao, R Tatake, R A Zeff, S Ferrone
We have previously reported that there is a global reduction in adenylyl cyclase associated with a decrement in Gs functional activity in cardiac sarcolemma from animals with pressure overload-induced hypertrophy and heart failure. This study was performed to determine whether hypertrophy alone in the absence of heart failure is sufficient to promote these changes and whether the superimposition of heart failure intensified these changes. Basal and stimulated adenylyl cyclase and Gs activity, as determined in the S49 cyc- reconstitution assay, were measured in sarcolemma from normal (NL), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and heart failure (HF) animals. Simultaneously, we measured the mRNA level encoding for the Gs alpha subunit. These studies indicate that Gs activity and Gs alpha mRNA are decreased by approximately 30% both in the failing heart and even in the heart with compensated hypertrophy before heart failure develops (Gs activity, pmol cyclic AMP/10 min per microgram, NL 4.2 +/- 0.4, LVH 3.0 +/- 0.2, HF 3.2 +/- 0.3; Gs alpha mRNA, pg/10 micrograms RNA, NL 131 +/- 9.0, LVH 104 +/- 7.4, HF 97.4 +/- 9.1; P less than 0.05 as compared with NL for LVH and HF). Accompanying this decrement in Gs activity is a fall in adenylyl cyclase, both basal and stimulated. However, we also identified a further decrease in adenylyl cyclase without any additional change in Gs or in its alpha subunit mRNA level. This is seen only in the sarcolemma from animals with heart failure as compared with those with compensated LV hypertrophy (e.g., NaF-stimulated activity, pmol cyclic AMP/min per mg, NL 420.2 +/- 17.5, LVH 347.1 +/- 29.6, HF 244.2 +/- 27.3; P less than 0.05 compared with NL for LVH and HF, P less than 0.05 compared with LVH for HF). In summary, these studies indicate that both Gs and adenylyl cyclase activities fall in parallel with the development of LV hypertrophy followed by a further decrement in adenylyl cyclase, independent of Gs, in the setting of heart failure.
L A Chen, D E Vatner, S F Vatner, L Hittinger, C J Homcy
IL-1 mediates multiple cellular immune and inflammatory responses, but little is known of the intracellular biochemical mechanisms involved in IL-1 actions. We studied the effects of IL-1 on phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) metabolism and confirmed reports indicating that IL-1 does not stimulate increased PtdIns turnover; however, we observed the accumulation of PtdIns-4-phosphate (PtdInsP) in response to IL-1. Using a fibroblast membrane preparation, we were able to detect stimulated PtdInsP accumulation within 10 s of IL-1 addition. Increased PtdInsP accumulation was due to stimulated PtdIns kinase activity, not the inhibition of PtdInsP hydrolysis by phospholipase(s). PtdIns kinase activity was magnesium dependent, increased as a function of IL-1 concentration, and specifically phosphorylated the D4 position of inositol. Stimulated PtdIns kinase activity could be detected at 10(-12) M IL-1 in fibroblast membranes, a concentration within the physiological range for IL-1 action; half-maximal activity was reached at approximately 10(-10) M IL-1. Heat denaturation of IL-1 or treatment of IL-1 with anti-IL-1 antibody abrogated the IL-1 effect. These findings demonstrate the direct, IL-1-mediated, stimulation of PtdIns kinase. IL-1-stimulated PtdIns kinase activity represents an important physiological regulatory effect by IL-1 as it could control the synthesis and/or maintenance of phosphorylated derivatives of PtdIns which comprise only a very small pool of substrates for the generation of the second messengers inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol.
L R Ballou, S C Barker, A E Postlethwaite, A H Kang
Since physiological concentrations (0.1-1 microM) of adenosine influence the functions of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), we investigated the metabolism of adenosine in suspensions of stimulated and unstimulated PMNs. Stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, 1 microM), but not by zymosan (0.5 mg/ml) or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP, 1 microM), provoked an accumulation of endogenous adenosine at a rate of 2.3 +/- 1.0 amol/cell per minute. A similar accumulation was observed with both unstimulated and stimulated PMNs after the addition of deoxycoformycin (dCF, 1-100 microM), an inhibitor of adenosine deaminase. Exogenous adenosine (10 microM) was deaminated at a rate of 9.8 +/- 3.7 amol/cell per minute in control or zymosan or fMLP-stimulated PMN suspensions. This deamination was nearly completely suppressed when the PMNs had been stimulated with PMA. In contrast, the activity of adenosine deaminase in PMN lysates (231 +/- 72 amol/cell per minute) was not modified by PMA stimulation. alpha, beta-Methyleneadenosine 5'-diphosphate (AMPCP, 2.5 mM), an inhibitor of membranous ecto-5'-nucleotidase, profoundly inhibited endogenous adenosine accumulation under all conditions. PMA stimulation also provoked an inactivation of extracellular adenosine deaminase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, and lactate dehydrogenase in PMN suspensions. We concluded that PMNs, even when not stimulated, continuously produce adenosine by dephosphorylation of extracellularly released adenylates; and that stimulation of PMNs by PMA causes adenosine accumulation owing to the inactivation of adenosine deaminase released by broken cells.
G van Waeg, G Van den Berghe
We tested the hypothesis that anti-placental folate receptor (PFR) antiserum-mediated effects on hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro of increased cell proliferation and megaloblastic morphology were independent responses. We determined that (a) purified IgG from anti-PFR antiserum reacted with purified apo- and holo-PFR and specifically immunoprecipitated a single (44-kD) iodinated moiety on cell surfaces of low density mononuclear cells (LDMNC); (b) when retained in culture during in vitro hematopoiesis, anti-PFR IgG (in contrast to PFR-neutralized anti-PFR IgG and nonimmune IgG) consistently led to increased cloning efficiency of colony forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E), burst forming unit-E (BFU-E), CFU-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM), and CFU-GEM megakaryocyte (CFU-GEMM), and objectively defined megaloblastic changes in orthochromatic normoblasts from CFU-E- and BFU-E-derived colonies; (c) when anti-PFR antiserum was removed after initial (less than 1 h) incubation with LDMNC, a cell proliferation response was induced, but megaloblastic changes were not evident. (d) Conversely, delay at 4 degrees C for 24 h before long-term plating with antiserum resulted in megaloblastosis without increased cell proliferation; (e) however, 500-fold molar excess extracellular folate concentrations completely abrogated the expected anti-PFR antiserum-induced megaloblastic changes, without altering cell proliferative responses. Thus, although cell proliferative and megaloblastic changes are induced after short-term and prolonged interaction of antibody with folate receptors on hematopoietic progenitors, respectively, they are independent effects.
A C Antony, R A Briddell, J E Brandt, J E Straneva, R S Verma, M E Miller, L A Kalasinski, R Hoffman
To test the hypothesis that uterine decidua may modulate trophoblast function, trophoblasts and decidual cells were isolated from term placentas by enzymatic digestion and Percoll gradient centrifugation. Placental trophoblasts were cocultured with decidual cells and trophoblasts or JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells were incubated with medium conditioned by decidual cells (DCM) for 72-96 h. In cocultures decidual cells inhibited choriogonadotropin (hCG) release from trophoblasts by 75% in comparison with controls (P less than 0.001). The DCM contained a factor that markedly inhibited hCG release from trophoblasts and JEG cells in vitro compared with controls. The inhibitory effect of the factor on hCG release was dose dependent, and could be eliminated by boiling the DCM for 30 min or proteolytic enzyme treatment. Ultrafiltration and Sephadex G-50 fractionation of the DCM indicated that the apparent molecular mass was 7,000-10,000 D. DCM also inhibited the stimulatory effect of exogenous cAMP on hCG secretion by JEG-3 cells, suggesting that DCM may interfere with activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases or transcription of hCG genes. These results suggest that the release of trophoblast hCG is under local paracrine control, regulated in part by a protein released by decidual cells.
S G Ren, G D Braunstein
Cholesterol esters (CE) formed in HDL by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase are thought to mediate the return of cholesterol from extrahepatic tissues to the liver for excretion or reutilization. Several pathways may be involved in that process. Tracer kinetics were used to estimate the contributions of the various pathways to cellular uptake of HDL CE in rabbits. Tracers of HDL CE, HDL apo A-I, LDL apo B, and VLDL CE were simultaneously injected intravenously. Plasma decays were followed for 24 h in 4 lipoprotein pools: HDL without apo E, HDL with apo E, LDL, and VLDL. Kinetic analysis of the resulting plasma decay curves revealed that the preponderance of plasma CE (greater than 90%) originated in the HDL fraction. About 70% of HDL CE were cleared from plasma after transfer to LDL and VLDL, 20% were cleared directly from the HDL pool without HDL particle uptake ("selective" uptake), and 10% were cleared in HDL particles (including particles containing apo E). Since rabbits have about four times the plasma cholesterol ester transfer activity of man, and since the transfer pathway must compete with the selective uptake pathway, these results make it likely that selective uptake plays a substantial role in humans in the clearance of HDL CE.
D I Goldberg, W F Beltz, R C Pittman
The renal collecting duct is a site of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) synthesis. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is also synthesized within the kidney in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and the distal tubule. EGF has been shown to regulate IGF I expression in nonrenal tissues. To shed light upon a role of EGF in intrarenal regulation of IGF I gene expression, plasma membranes prepared from collecting ducts isolated from rat kidney and collecting ducts themselves were incubated in the presence and absence of recombinant human EGF (hEGF). hEGF enhanced phospholipase C activity in collecting duct plasma membranes establishing the potential for EGF signal transduction at this site. Inclusion of hEGF in suspensions of collecting ducts increased production of immunoreactive IGF I in a concentration-dependent manner. Production was stimulated significantly by addition of 10(-8) or 10(-6) M hEGF to suspensions for 2 h. Levels of IGF I mRNA in collecting ducts were increased 2.8-fold after incubation with 10(-6) M hEGF in vitro. Our findings demonstrate a direct action of hEGF to enhance collecting duct IGF I gene expression in vitro. Such enhancement is likely to reflect an effect of EGF to stimulate IGF I production in the collecting duct of the intact kidney. Since EGF is produced in kidney, our findings are consistent with intrarenal paracrine regulation of IGF I gene expression by EGF.
S A Rogers, S B Miller, M R Hammerman
Two of the cytosolic NADPH oxidase components, p47-phox and p67-phox, translocate to the plasma membrane in normal neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). We have now studied the translocation process in neutrophils of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), an inherited syndrome in which the oxidase system fails to produce superoxide due to lesions affecting any one of its four known components: the gp91-phox and p22-phox subunits of cytochrome b558 (the membrane-bound terminal electron transporter of the oxidase), p47-phox, and p67-phox. In contrast to normal cells, neither p47-phox nor p67-phox translocated to the membrane in PMA-stimulated CGD neutrophils which lack cytochrome b558. In one patient with a rare X-linked form of CGD caused by a Pro----His substitution in gp91-phox, but whose neutrophils have normal levels of this mutant cytochrome b558, translocation was normal. In two patients with p47-phox deficiency, p67-phox failed to translocate, whereas p47-phox was detected in the particulate fraction of PMA-stimulated neutrophils from two patients deficient in p67-phox. Our data suggest that cytochrome b558 or a closely linked factor provides an essential membrane docking site for the cytosolic oxidase components and that it is p47-phox that mediates the assembly of these components on the membrane.
P G Heyworth, J T Curnutte, W M Nauseef, B D Volpp, D W Pearson, H Rosen, R A Clark
In a family who expressed severe dominantly inherited osteoarthritis, the underlying mutation was traced by genomic sequencing to a single base change which predicts an amino acid substitution of cysteine for arginine at residue 519 of the triple-helical domain of the type II collagen molecule (Ala-Kokko, L., C. T. Baldwin, R. W. Moskowitz, and D. J. Prockop. 1990. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87:6565-6568). In the present study we examined whether this predicted protein phenotype was evident in articular cartilage obtained from an affected family member who underwent hip surgery. The cartilage collagen was solubilized by CNBr digestion. Cysteine residues were labeled by reduction and alkylation with 14C-iodoacetate. Collagen CNBr-peptides were fractionated by ion exchange and reverse phase column chromatography. One peptide from the alpha 1(II) chain, alpha 1(II) CB8, was found to be radiolabeled. Tryptic peptides were prepared from it and identified by microsequence analysis. The results show that approximately one-quarter of the alpha 1(II) chains present in the polymeric extracellular collagen of the patient's cartilage contained the Arg519-to-Cys substitution. The protein exhibited other abnormal properties including disulfide-bonded alpha 1(II)-dimers and signs of posttranslational overmodification. The premature cartilage failure and osteoarthritis are presumably a result of the abnormal type II collagen being expressed in the cartilage matrix.
D R Eyre, M A Weis, R W Moskowitz
The mechanism by which digestive zymogens become activated during acute pancreatitis remains poorly understood. Given the ability for cholecystokinin (CCK) to induce pancreatitis in vivo, the effects of high dose CCK on preparations of isolated pancreatic acini were examined. Using an immunologic technique for the detection of zymogen activation, CCK was found to stimulate the conversion of procarboxypeptidase A1 to a 35-kD form having the same net charge and electrophoretic mobility as purified recombinant carboxypeptidase A1. This enhanced conversion was proportional to the dose of CCK (maximal at 100 nM), and time dependent. CCK also produced changes in the electrophoretic mobility of procarboxypeptidase B and chymotrypsinogen 2 immunoreactivity, consistent with activation of these zymogens. These events were detectable only within acinar cell pellets and not in the incubation medium, suggesting an intracellular site of conversion. The conversion of procarboxypeptidase A1 to its active form was inhibited by pretreatment with the weak base chloroquine (40 microM) and the protonophore monensin (10 microM). This conversion was also inhibited by pretreatment with the serine protease inhibitor benzamidine (10 mM) but not the cysteine protease inhibitor E64 (100 microM). The results suggest that high dose CCK stimulates the intracellular activation of digestive zymogens within isolated pancreatic acini. This event appears to require an acidic subcellular compartment and serine protease activity.
S D Leach, I M Modlin, G A Scheele, F S Gorelick
Anderson's disease is a recessive disorder characterized by intestinal fat malabsorption, absence of postprandial chylomicrons, and reduced levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and apoproteins B, AI, and C. We have studied two families with, respectively, three and two children with Anderson's disease. Intestinal apo-B and apo-AIV mRNAs from two Anderson's patients were normal in size but their concentration was decreased fivefold compared with controls. After DNA digestion with seven restriction enzymes, restriction fragment length polymorphisms of apo-B gene did not show conclusive information except for Xba1, which revealed a lack of cosegregation between the restriction fragment length polymorphism and the Anderson's phenotype. Linkage analysis was performed using the polymorphism of the apo-B gene 3'minisatellite. Genomic DNA from parents and children was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using oligonucleotide primers flanking the apo-B gene 3'hypervariable locus. In both families each child inherited different apo-B alleles from at least one parent. According to the recessive mode of transmission of the disease, our results are incompatible with the involvement of the apo-B gene. More likely a posttranslational defect or a mutation in another gene encoding a protein essential for lipoprotein assembly or secretion may be involved.
M Pessah, P Benlian, I Beucler, N Loux, J Schmitz, C Junien, R Infante
Epidemiologic data of recent years have identified an important role of HDL deficiency in the etiology of atherosclerosis. Biochemical data suggest that some of these deficiencies may be a consequence of defects in the structural genes of HDL apolipoproteins or of plasma enzymes that modify HDL. We analyzed the genetic defect in a 42-yr-old patient suffering from corneal opacities and complete absence of HDL cholesterol but not of coronary artery disease, thus clinically resembling fish eye disease. The observation of an abnormal immunoblot banding pattern of apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) and of reduced lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity in plasma led to sequence analysis of the genes for apo A-I and LCAT in this patient and his family. Direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction amplified DNA segments containing the exons of the candidate genes, resulted in the identification of a frameshift mutation in apo A-I while the LCAT sequence was identical to the wild type. The apo A-I mutation was predictive for an extensive alteration of the COOH-terminal sequence of the encoded protein. Evidence for the release of this mutant protein into the plasma compartment and for the absence of normal apo A-I was derived from ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis. Our results suggest that a defective apo A-I is the causative defect in this case of HDL deficiency with corneal opacities.
H Funke, A von Eckardstein, P H Pritchard, M Karas, J J Albers, G Assmann