Acidosis inhibits the hydroosmotic response to vasopressin. Since prostaglandins are known to modulate vasopressin-stimulated water flow we investigated the role of endogenous prostaglandin E2(PGE2) production in the pH-dependent response of the toad urinary bladder to vasopressin. Graded acidification of the serosal medial resulted in a progressive decline in vasopressin-stimulated water flow from 26.6 +/- 0.5 mg/min at pH 8.4 to 1.7 +/- 0.6 at pH 6.9. In these bladders basal PGE2 synthesis increased from 5.09 +/- 0.51 pmol/min per g hemibladder at pH 8.4 to 18.8 +/- 2.8 at pH 6.9. The addition of that concentration of PGE2 produced by the bladder at pH 7.4 (4 nM) to bladders at pH 8.4 resulted in 62-71% of the inhibition usually seen at pH 7.4; these data suggest that basal PGE2 production per se and not other products of prostaglandin synthesis or other pH-dependent events is responsible for the effect of acidosis. Preincubation with prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors reversed in major part the effect of serosal acidification on the response to submaximal concentrations of vasopressin and completely abolished the effect of pH on near maximal concentrations of the hormone. An increase in PGE2 synthesis after vasopressin was not seen at any pH. These studies establish that increased basal PGE2 synthesis plays a critical role in the pH dependence of the hydroosmotic response to vasopressin and demonstrate that factors that modulate the response to vasopressin may exert this effect by changing the basal rate of prostaglandin synthesis.
J N Forrest Jr, C J Schneider, D B Goodman
Although opioid peptides have been demonstrated immunohistochemically in the feline intestine, the action of these peptides is unknown. The aims of this study were: (a) to determine the distal ileal and ileocecal sphincter (ICS) responses to morphine sulfate (MS), methionine enkephalin (ME) and leucine enkephalin (LE); (b) to determine the mechanism by which exogenous opiates mediate these responses; (c) to determine the type of receptor involved in mediating these responses and (d) to ascertain whether endogenous opiate-mediated responses may be vagally induced. The ICS responded to all three opiate agonists with tonic and phasic contractions, the latter being associated with increased spike activity. The EDmax for ICS pressure response was 1 μg/kg for ME, 5 μg/kg for LE, and 150 μg/kg for MS. The distal ileum responded with increased spike activity and phasic contractions. The EDmax for the ileal motility index response was 1.0 × 10−1 μg/kg for ME, 1 μg/kg for LE, and 150 μg/kg for MS. Thus, both sites demonstrated similar dose-response relationships, both responding to at least 100 times lower doses of enkephalins than MS. The ICS contraction preceded ileal contractions. The ileal and ICS response was not antagonized by atropine, hexamethonium, phentolamine, propranolol, cinanserin, or tetrodotoxin. Naloxone, 600 μg/kg, antagonized the response to the enkephalins while 10 μg/kg antagonized the response to MS. Higher doses of the specific-receptor agonist SKF 10047 and κ-receptor agonist ketocyclazocine were required before a contractile response was elicited. Electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus induced ICS contraction and a fall in blood pressure. The ICS contractile response but not the blood pressure response was inhibited by naloxone 1 mg/kg. These data indicate: (a) tonic and phasic ICS contraction followed by ileal contraction may be mediated through δ-type opiate receptors located in the muscle membrane and (b) opiate-mediated ICS contraction may be induced during vagal stimulation.
Ann Ouyang, Carole J. Clain, William J. Snape Jr., Sidney Cohen
Oral glucose (25 g) fed to seven healthy, conscious dogs resulted in an increase in peripheral plasma glucose from 109 +/- 3 to 178 +/- 10 mg/dl. Concurrently serum insulin increased in the portal vein to levels approximately threefold greater than those in the periphery. Hepatic insulin delivery rose from 10.8 +/- 0.7 to 59.0 +/- 19.9 m U/min at 60 min. coincident with an increased hepatic insulin extraction from 3.3 to 41.4 mU/min (corresponding to an increase in hepatic extraction from 31 +/- 4 to 59 +/- 7%), both returning to basal at 3 h. In each animal there was a positive correlation between hepatic insulin delivery and extraction (r = 0.80, P less than 0.001 for the seven experiments combined). These changes in heptic insulin delivery and extraction after glucose metabolism associated with insulin action. As hepatic insulin extraction increased, hepatic glucose output declined, both parameters returning to basal levels by 3 h, indicating a negative correlation between hepatic insulin extraction and hepatic glucose output (r = 0.63, P less than 0.001; n = 7). The factors that mediate this marked and rapidly occurring increase in hepatic insulin extraction after oral glucose are unknown, and may include hepatic insulin delivery, glucose levels in the blood flow, and gut factors released by oral glucose intake. The association of changes in hepatic insulin extraction in vivo with an insulin effect on the liver as measured hepatic glucose output is consistent with in vitro observations relating insulin degradation to receptor binding.
J Jaspan, K Polonsky
The low thyroxine (T4) state of acute critical nonthyroidal illnesses is characterized by marked decreases in serum total T4 and triiodothyronine (T3) with elevated reverse T3 (rT3) values. To better define the mechanisms responsible for these alterations, serum kinetic disappearance studies of labeled T4, T3, or rT3 were determined in 16 patients with the low T4 state and compared with 27 euthyroid controls and a single subject with near absence of thyroxine-binding globulin. Marked increases in the serum free fractions of T4 (0.070±0.007%, normal [nl] 0.0315±0.0014, P < 0.001), T3 (0.696±0.065%, nl 0.310±0.034, P < 0.001), and rT3 (0.404±0.051%, nl 0.133±0.007, P < 0.001) by equilibrium dialysis were observed indicating impaired serum binding. Noncompartmental analysis of the kinetic data revealed an increased metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of T4 (1.69±0.22 liter/d per m2, nl 0.73±0.05, P < 0.001) and fractional catabolic rate (FCR) (32.8±2.6%, nl 12.0±0.8, P < 0.001), analogous to the euthyroid subject with low thyroxine-binding globulin. However, the reduced rate of T4 exit from the serum (Kii) (15.2±4.6 d−1, nl 28.4±3.9, P < 0.001) indicated an impairment of extravascular T4 binding that exceeded the serum binding defect. This defect did not apparently reduce the availability of T4 to sites of disposal as reflected by the increased fractional disposal rate of T4 (0.101±0.018 d−1, nl 0.021±0.003, P < 0.001). The decreased serum T3 binding was associated with the expected increases in MCR (18.80±2.22 liter/d per m2, nl 13.74±1.30, P < 0.05) and total volume of distribution (26.55±4.80 liter/m2, nl 13.10±2.54, P < 0.01). However, the unaltered Kii suggested an extravascular binding impairment comparable to that found in serum. The decreased T3 production rate (6.34±0.53 μg/d per m2, nl 23.47±2.12, P < 0.005) appeared to result from reduced peripheral T4 to T3 conversion because of decreased 5′-deiodination rather than from a decreased T4 availability. This view was supported by the normality of the rT3 production rate. The normal Kii values for rT3 indicated a comparable defect in serum and extravascular rT3 binding. The reduced MCR (25.05±6.03 liter/d per m2, nl 59.96±8.56, P < 0.005) and FCR (191.0±41.19%, nl 628.0±199.0, P < 0.02) for rT3 are compatible with an impairment of the rT3 deiodination rate.
Elaine M. Kaptein, William J. Robinson, Deborah A. Grieb, John T. Nicoloff
When blood is clotted, α2-plasmin inhibitor (α2PI) is cross-linked to fibrin by activated fibrin-stabilizing factor (activated coagulation Factor XIII, plasma transglutaminase). The amount of cross-linked α2-PI is proportional to the amount of α2PI present at the time of clotting. Plasma from a patient with congenital deficiency of α2PI was supplemented with various amounts of purified α2PI. Clots were prepared from these plasmas and were suspended in plasma containing a normal concentration of α2PI, and spontaneous clot lysis was observed. When the clot was formed in the presence of calcium ions and thereby allowing cross-linking to occur, the rate and extent of fibrinolysis were found to be inversely proportional to the concentrations of α2PI present in the clot at the time of clotting. When the clot was formed in the absence of calcium ions so that no cross-linking occurred, the clot underwent fibrinolysis at similar rates, regardless of the concentrations of α2PI in the clot. When the clot formed in the presence of calcium ions was squeezed and washed to remove unbound proteins before being suspended in plasma, the extent of fibrinolysis was also inversely proportional to the amount of α2PI cross-linked to fibrin. Similar results were obtained when the clot was suspended in buffered saline instead of plasma. These observations suggest that spontaneous fibrinolysis is mainly carried out by plasminogen/plasminogen activator bound to fibrin, and this fibrinolysis caused by fibrin-associated activation of plasminogen was mainly inhibited by α2PI cross-linked to fibrin. To further support this concept, α2PI treated with activated fibrin-stabilizing factor and that had lost most of its cross-linking capacity was used in similar experiments. This modified α2PI had the same inhibitory activity on plasmin as the native inhibitor, but gave significantly less inhibition of fibrinolysis in every experiment, particularly when the clot was compacted by platelet-mediated clot retraction or by squeezing. Thus, it was concluded that α2PI cross-linked to fibrin plays a significant role in inhibition of physiologically occurring fibrinolysis. It is further suggested that the absence of cross-linked α2PI contributes to accelerated fibrinolysis and hemorrhagic tendency in patients with congenital deficiency of fibrin-stabilizing factor.
Yoichi Sakata, Nobuo Aoki
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was obtained from 24 sequentially studied patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for assessment of potential activating and mediating factors. Proteolytic activity of the fluids was observed by measuring cleavage of radiolabeled proteins of the contact (Hageman factor) and complement systems. Proteolytic activity was observed in 17 of 24 (71%) patients with ARDS, and BAL fluid of the 7 ARDS patients without demonstrable, active, enzyme exhibited inhibitory activity for the proteolytic activity. The enzymes cleaved Hageman factor, prekallikrein, plasminogen, high molecular weight kininogen, C4, C3, C5, and Factor B of the complement system. Cleavage of the contact system proteins producted fragments similar or identical in size to the fragments observed during activation of these molecules, although continued incubation invariably reduced the protein to small peptide fragments. None of 7 normal individuals, and 29 of 99 patients (29%) with other forms of pulmonary disease contained measurable enzymes.
William W. Mcguire, Roger G. Spragg, Allen B. Cohen, Charles G. Cochrane
To investigate compartmental properties of insulin storage and secretion, isolated rat islets were used for pulse-labeling experiments, after which proinsulin and insulin were purified rigorously. Processing of proinsulin to insulin neared completion by 3 h without additional loss of either radioactive peptide by cellular or extracellular proteolysis. The amount of labeled hormone rapidly diminished in islets; it was secreted at a higher fractional rate than immunoreactive insulin, resulting in secreted insulin's having a higher specific activity than the average cellular insulin. Newly synthesized insulin, therefore, was secreted preferentially. Changes in the specific activity of secreted and cellular insulin with time were consistent with changes predicted for islets containing 33% of their total insulin in a glucose-labile compartment. Predictions were based on steady-state analysis of a simple storage-limited representation of B cell function. Islets from either the dorsal or ventral part of the pancreas also contained 33% of their total insulin in a glucose-labile compartment. The same compartment was mobilized by 20 mM glucose, 50 mM potassium + 2 mM glucose, or 20 MM glucose + 1 mM 3-isobutylmethylxanthine as indicated by the specific activity ratio of secreted vs. cellular insulin, even though average secretion rates with these stimuli differed by more than threefold. In the absence of calcium, the effectiveness of 20 mM glucose as a secretagogue declined markedly, and the older stored insulin was preferentially mobilized because secreted insulin had a lower rather than a higher specific activity than cellular insulin. Results provide insight into the mechanisms of nonrandom mobilization and secretion of insulin form the B cell.
G Gold, H D Landahl, M L Gishizky, G M Grodsky
Immunological detection of elastase, an enzyme present within leukocyte granules, has been used as a marker for polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes contained 4.6 μg/107 cells, whereas erythrocytes, mononuclear cells, and platelets contained <1% of this level. In plasma that was separated from blood cells after 1 h at 22°C, the mean level of elastase-related antigen in seven normal donors was 25±6 ng/ml. This level was unaltered by immediate separation of the plasma from the cells, by inclusion of protease inhibitors, or by anticoagulation of the plasma with either EDTA or acidcitrate-dextrose (the level in heparinized plasma was approximately threefold higher). In serum, the level of elastase-related antigen was 288±125 ng/ml, representing an 11.5-fold increase above plasma levels. The antigen detected in serum was immunochemically indistinguishable from the leukocyte enzyme. Release of elastase was observed when isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes were added to nonanticoagulated platelet-rich or platelet-poor plasma, recalcified plasma, or to serum. Addition of a chelating agent to serum prevented elastase release, but calcium or magnesium did not induce release in the absence of plasma. Coagulation induced by addition of thrombin to plasma also failed to induce release. In whole blood or in anticoagulated plasma reconstituted with polymorphonuclear leukocytes and then recalcified, initial release of elastase occurred concomitantly with or slightly after clotting and reached maximal levels within 20-40 min after clot formation. The data indicates that early events in coagulation or other pathways that occur in parallel with coagulation induce leukocyte release. The release of elastase, a major fibrinolytic protease of leukocytes, from the cells provides a mechanism for this enzyme or other granule proteases to participate in physiological events.
Edward F. Plow
Extrinsic (tissue-type) plasminogen activator (plasminogen activator) was isolated either as a single-chain or as a two-chain molecule from the culture medium of a human melanoma cell line. The thrombolytic activity of both molecular forms of activator was investigated in beagle dogs with an experimental femoral vein thrombosis and compared with that of urokinase. The 125I-fibrinogen-labeled thrombus was formed in an isolated 4-cm segment of the vein, aged for 30 min, and the thrombolytic substances were infused over a 4-h period. The degree of thrombolysis was measured 2 h later as the difference between the injected and recovered 125I. In six control animals with a saline infusion the extent of thrombolysis was 16.3 +/- 3.8% (mean +/- SEM), in five dogs receiving 100,000 IU urokinase, 17.4 +/- 3.7% (P less than 0.4) and in four dogs with 1,000,000 IU urokinase 40.6 +/- 4.8% (P less than 0.001). Infusion of 100.000 IU single-chain plasminogen activator in five dogs resulted in 3.5 +/- 7.8% lysis (P less than 0.05) and of 100,000 IU two-chain plasminogen activator in five dogs in 60.1 +/- 10.8% (P less than 0.001). Infusion of 300,000 IU one-chain plasminogen activator yielded 57.5% lysis and of the same amount of two-chain plasminogen activator 72.9%. Significant activation of plasminogen, consumption of alpha 2-antiplasmin, and fibrinogen breakdown in plasma was only observed in animals receiving the high doses of urokinase but not in the saline, plasminogen activator, or the low-dose urokinase groups. It is thus concluded that in this thrombosis model human extrinsic plasminogen activator has a higher specific thrombolytic effect that urokinase. Plasminogen activator also appears to induce thrombolysis without systemic fibrinolytic activation and fibrinogen breakdown.
C Korninger, O Matsuo, R Suy, J M Stassen, D Collen
The natural killer (NK)-interferon (IFN) system is shown to be significantly involved in the resistance of host to viral infections and to tumours in numbers of animal models (1-4). The patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) as well as those with collagen diseases were systematically investigated for the functions of NK-IFN system, including endogenous and augmented NK activity, IFN production, and responsiveness of NK cells to IFN stimulation, using virus persistently infected cells (heLa-measles cells) as target and stimulator cells. Although endogenous NK activity was not reduced, augmented NK activity by HeLa-measles cells in vitro was significantly depressed in patients with SS compared with that in age-matched normal controls. The patients with SS had also impaired capacity to produce IFN, which is shown to be a major factor regulating NK activity (5,6) in response to HeLa-measles cells in vitro. In three patients with SS who showed severely depressed NK activity, the effect of exogenous IFN was examined, and virtually no augmentation of NK activity was observed in all cases. Under the same condition, the normal controls demonstrated a dramatic increase in NK activity. The reduced IFN production was observed in all examined patients with SS, whereas impaired augmentation of NK activity by the stimulation with HeLa-measles cells as well as IFN seemed to be more striking in patients with the systemic manifestations of the disease, such as hypergammaglobulinemia and lymphoid hyperplasia. The possible involvement of dysfunction of NK-IFN system in the systemic manifestations of SS is discussed.
N Minato, A Takeda, S Kano, F Takaku
Cetiedil is a potential antisickling agent whose major effect appears to be at the erythrocyte membrane. To test the hypothesis that cetiedil alters cation transport, we studied the effect of the drug in promoting changes in cell water (Wc), cell sodium (Nac), and cell potassium (Kc). Results are quite different depending on the presence or near absence of intracellular ATP. With fresh cells, 100 microM cetiedil causes little in the net cation or water movements compared with control cells incubated for 2 h. At cetiedil concentrations greater than 100 microM, however, net movements of sodium and potassium increase considerably, and cell swelling results from a net Nac gain that exceeds a net Kc loss. All water movements can be accounted for by cetiedil-induced net cation movements. When 100 microM ouabain is added along with cetiedil, net Nac gain, net Kc loss, and net Wc gain are all increased compared with results obtained with cetiedil alone. External calcium inhibits cetiedil-induced changes in cation transport. With cells depleted of their ATP, cetiedil inhibits the typical potassium loss that occurs in the presence of external calcium; net sodium uptake changes little under these conditions, regardless of the presence or absence of external calcium. Our findings indicate a complex mode of action for cetiedil on the erythrocyte membrane, and support the hypothesis that the erythrocyte membrane, and support the hypothesis that the antisickling effect of the drug observed in vitro results from dilution of intracellular hemoglobin secondary to net salt and water gain.
W F Schmidt 3rd, T Asakura, E Schwartz
Bilirubin diglucuronide (BDG) may be formed in vitro by microsomal UDP glucuronosyl transferase (EC 188.8.131.52)-mediated transfer of a second mole of glucuronic acid from UDP-glucuronic acid, or by dismutation of bilirubin monoglucuronide (BMG) to BDG and unconjugated bilirubin, catalyzed by an enzyme (EC 184.108.40.206) that is concentrated in plasma membrane-enriched fractions of rat liver. To evaluate the role of these two enzymatic mechanisms in vivo, [3H]bilirubin mono-[14C]glucuronide was biosynthesized, purified by thin-layer chromatography, and tracer doses were infused intravenously in homozygous Gunn (UDP glucuronyl transferase-deficient) rats or Wistar rats. Bilirubin conjugates in bile were separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography and 3H and 14C were quantitated. In Gunn rats, the 14C:3H ratio in BDG excreted in bile was twice the ratio in injected BMG. In Wistar rats the 14C:3H ratio in biliary BDG was 1.25 ± 0.06 (mean ± SEM) times the ratio in injected BMG. When double labeled BMG was injected in Wistar rats after injection of excess unlabeled unconjugated bilirubin (1.7 μmol), the 14C:3H ratio in BDG excreted in bile was identical to the ratio in injected BMG. Analysis of isomeric composition of bilirubin conjugates after alkaline hydrolysis or alkaline methanolysis indicated that the bile pigments retained the IXα configuration during these experiments. The results indicate that both enzymatic dismutation and UDP glucuronyl transferase function in vivo in BDG formation, and that dismutation is inhibited by a high intrahepatic concentration of unconjugated bilirubin. This hypothesis was supported by infusion of [3H]bilirubin-monoglucuronide in isolated perfused homozygous Gunn rat liver after depletion of intrahepatic bilirubin by perfusion with bovine serum albumin (2.5%), and after bilirubin repletion following perfusion with 0.34 mM bilirubin. From 20 to 25% of injected radioactivity was recovered in BDG in bile in the bilirubin-depleted state; only 8-10% of radioactivity was in BDG in bile after bilirubin repletion.
J. Roy Chowdhury, N. Roy Chowdhury, Ulrich Gärtner, Allan W. Wolkoff, Irwin M. Arias
The administration of vasodilating agents such as bradykinin and acetylcholine cause an increase in urinary sodium excretion. Yet the mechanisms involved in this natriuretic effect are not clear. Recent studies with another renal vasodilator, secretin have shown this drug also causes a profound increase in renal blood flow but without major changes in sodium excretion. To attempt to delineate the basis of this difference in sodium excretion with these drugs, the renal functional effects of secretin and bradykinin were compared at an equivalent vasodilating dose. Bradykinin increased renal blood flow from 222 to 342 ml/min, urine volume from 0.2 to 1.2 ml/min, and urine sodium excretion from 28 to 115 μeq/min. Urine osmolality fell from 1,230 to 401 mosmol/kg. Secretin caused a comparable increase in renal blood flow (216 to 325 ml/min) while changes in urine flow, sodium excretion, and urine osmolality were significantly less.
Stephen Z. Fadem, Guillermo Hernandez-Llamas, Ram V. Patak, Steven G. Rosenblatt, Meyer D. Lifschitz, Jay H. Stein
Males have a higher morbidity and mortality for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) than females, and respond less well to hormone therapy designed to prevent RDS by stimulating fetal pulmonary surfactant production. We have shown that male fetuses exhibit delayed production of pulmonary surfactant. We tested the hypothesis that the sex difference in fetal pulmonary surfactant production is under hormonal control. Pulmonary surfactant was measured as the saturated phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin ratio (SPC/S) in the lung lavage of fetal rabbits at 26 d gestation. There was an association between the sex of neighboring fetuses and the SPC/S ratio of the female fetuses, such that with one or two male neighbors, respectively, females had decreasing SPC/S ratios (P < 0.05). We injected dihydrotestosterone (DHT) into pregnant does from day 12 through day 26 of gestation in doses of 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 25 mg/d, and measured the SPC/S ratio in fetal lung lavage on day 26. In groups with the normal sex difference in fetal serum androgen levels (controls, 0.1 mg DHT/d) the normal sex difference in the SPC/S ratio was also present (females > males, P = 0.03). In the 1-mg/d group there was no sex difference in androgen levels and the sex difference in the SPC/S ratio was also eliminated as the female values were lowered to the male level. Higher doses of DHT (10, 25 mg/d) further reduced the SPC/S ratios. We injected the anti-androgen Flutamide (25 mg/d) from day 12 through day 26 of gestation. This treatment eliminated the normal sex difference in the lung lavage SPC/S ratio by increasing the male ratios to that of the females. We conclude that androgens inhibit fetal pulmonary surfactant production. An understanding of the mechanism of the sex difference in surfactant production may allow development of therapy that is as effective in males as in females for preventing RDS.
Heber C. Nielsen, Howard M. Zinman, John S. Torday
By comparing natural immunity to Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) in vivo with the action of human or mouse phagocytes against AF in vitro, we delineated two sequential lines of defense against AF. The first line of defense was formed by macrophages and directed against spores. Macrophages prevented germination and killed spores in vitro and rapidly eradicated conidia in vivo, even in neutropenic and athymic mice. The second was the neutrophilic granulocyte (PMN), which protected against the hyphal form of AF. Human and mouse PMN killed mycelia in vitro. Normal, but not neutropenic mice, stopped hyphal growth, and eradicated mycelia. Either line of defense acting alone protected mice from high challenge doses. Natural immunity collapsed only when both the reticuloendothelial system and PMN were impaired. These findings are in keeping with the clinical observation that high doses of cortisone and neutropenia are the main risk factors for invasive aspergillosis. Cortisone inhibited the conidiacidal activity of mouse macrophages in vivo and of human or mouse mononuclear phagocytes in vitro. Cortisone damaged this first line of defense directly and not through the influence of T lymphocytes or other systems modifying macrophage function as shown in athymic mice and in vitro. In addition, daily high doses of cortisone in mice reduced the mobilization of PMN so that the second line of defense was also impaired. Thus, cortisone can break down natural resistance on its own. Myelosuppression rendered mice susceptible only when the first line of defense was overpowered by high challenge doses, by activated spores that cannot be killed by macrophages, or by cortisone suppression of the conidiacidal activity of macrophages.
Andreas Schaffner, Herndon Douglas, Abraham Braude
An association has been established between human Ia-like (Ia) antigenic determinants, expression during DNA synthesis on granulocyte-macrophage colony forming cells (CFU-GM) and the regulatory action of acidic isoferritins in vitro. Treatment of human bone marrow cells with monoclonal-anti-Ia-like (Ia) plus complement inhibited colony and cluster formation by ∼50% but did not affect pre-CFU-GM. Reduction of colonies and clusters was similar whether bone marrow cells were exposed to anti-Ia plus complement, high specific activity tritiated thymidine (3HTdr) or acidic isoferritins. No further decrease was apparent with 3HTdr or acidic isoferritins after Ia-antigen+ CFU-GM were removed, or with anti-Ia plus complement or acidic isoferritins after DNA synthetic phase (S-phase) CFU-GM were removed. Anti-Ia, without complement, did not reduce colony or cluster formation but did block the inhibitory action of acidic isoferritins. A relationship existed between Ia antigens and the activity of acidic isoferritins in the following ways: (a) The apparent loss of Ia-antigens from CFU-GM by 5 h in culture at 37°C, but not at 27° or 4°C, was associated with nonresponsiveness to inhibition with acidic isoferritins, (b) Ia-antigen−, noncycling pre-CFU-GM that were insensitive to acidic isoferritins could generate a population of Ia-antigen+ cycling CFU-GM in vitro that were responsive to inhibition by acidic isoferritins, and (c) nondetectability of Ia-antigens on CFU-GM from patients with leukemia was associated with nonresponsiveness to inhibition by acidic isoferritins. These results implicate Ia-antigen+ progenitor cells in the regulation of myelopoiesis in vitro and demonstrate that absence of Ia-antigens on patient CFU-GM is associated with imbalances in normal regulatory interactions in vitro. These findings may be of relevance to normal regulation and to the progression of leukemia.
Hal E. Broxmeyer
To elucidate the physiological and pathophysiological significance of methionine- and leucine-enkephalin (Met-and Leu-enkephalin, respectively) in human sympathoadrenal system, the contents of these peptides in normal human sympathetic nervous system, adrenal medulla, and pheochromocytomas were determined by specific radioimmunoassays combined with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Met-enkephalin-LI and Leu-enkephalin-LI, respectively) were detected by radioimmunoassay in adrenal glands, adrenal medulla, stellate ganglia, sympathetic trunks, and celiac ganglia, and their contents in adrenal medulla were highest. Existence of authentic Met- and Leu-enkephalin was confirmed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Met-enkephalin was approximately 74% of Met-enkephalin-LI, whereas Leu-enkephalin was approximately 30% of Leu-enkephalin-LI in human adrenal medulla. The ratio of Met- to Leu-enkephalin was 2.6 in human adrenal medulla, whereas it was higher in sympathetic ganglia or trunks. In four cases of pheochromocytoma marked difference in Met- and Leu-enkephalin contents was found between medullary and extramedullary tumors. The contents were about three orders higher and the Met- to Leu-enkephalin ratio was lower in medullary than in extramedullary pheochromocytomas, reflecting the tissues where the tumors arose. These results suggest the physiological roles of Met- and Leu-enkephalin in sympathetic nervous system and adrenal glands and their pathophysiological significances in pheochromocytomas.
T Yoshimasa, K Nakao, H Ohtsuki, S Li, H Imura
Lung lavage levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-like activity were increased in C57BL/6 mice with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-induced chronic granulomatous pulmonary inflammation and splenomegaly. Contrariwise, ACE activity was not increased in lung lavage fluids of CBA mice that developed only minimal pulmonary inflammation in response to BCG. ACE-like activity correlated with the intensity of inflammation and Captopril, a specific competitive inhibitor of ACE activity, markedly suppressed the induction and maintenance of the BCG-induced inflammatory response in both lungs and spleen. It was necessary, however, to provide sustained treatment with large doses of Captopril in order to reduce the inflammatory response. After a single intraperitoneal injection of Captopril, ACE levels in lung lavage of BCG-injected mice were reduced but returned to preinjection levels or greater within 24 h. The highest dose of Captopril was more effective in reducing the lung fluid level of ACE in BCG-inflamed lungs. This suggests that sustained daily injections of Captopril were necessary to maintain reduced ACE levels. In vitro studies indicated that high concentrations of Captopril did not affect macrophage mobility or chemotactic activity for macrophages. Thus, ACE may act as a molecular mediator of BCG-induced granulomatous inflammation in the lung.
D J Schrier, L M Ripani, A L Katzenstein, V L Moore
In vitro, Haemophilus influenzae strains have two distinct patterns of susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ); strains with low minimum inhibitory concentration and high minimum bactericidal concentration (tolerant) and those with both low minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration (kill-sensitive). Tolerant H. influenzae strains were found to elaborate significantly more type b capsular polysaccharide, a linear polymer of ribosyl ribose phosphate (PRP), than kill-sensitive strains. Tolerant strains became susceptible to killing by TMP/SMZ when type b capsule was physically removed, but reacquired tolerance following growth and reversion to original (mucoid) phenotype. Susceptibility of wild (type a, b, c), isogenic (type b and untypable), and transformed (type b and d) strains indicated that elaboration of type b capsule was associated with TMP/SMZ tolerance. In a second series of studies, virulence of H. influenzae in the infant rat model was correlated with in vitro tolerance. Tolerant strains (13/13) caused systemic disease while none (0/7) of kill-sensitive strains were pathogenic. The efficacy of TMP/SMZ in the treatment of invasive infection was evaluated in rats with established bacteremia and meningitis. TMP/SMZ failed to eradicate H. influenzae b from the blood in 85% (17/20) or from the cerebrospinal fluid in 95% (19/20) of infected animals. Thus, in vitro tolerance correlated with therapeutic failure in vivo.
R Yogev, E R Moxon
Recent reports have suggested that opioid peptides may be involved in renal water excretion. The present in vivo experiments, therefore, were undertaken to determine the effect of opioid peptides on the osmotic and nonosmotic release of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the conscious rat. Experimental animals were infused intravenously with naloxone (20 μg/kg per min) or oxilorphan (40 μg/kg per min), chemically dissimilar opioid antagonists. Control rats were infused with normal saline, the vehicle for the opioid antagonists. In all three groups the osmotic release of AVP was examined during an acute hypertonic saline (3%) infusion (2 ml/100 g body wt). The antidiuresis following the hypertonic saline infusion was significantly attenuated in naloxone- and oxilorphan-treated rats, as the peak urinary osmolality (Uosm) rose to 581.4±22.4 and 558.2±27.6 mosmol/kg H2O in naloxone- and oxilorphan-treated rats as compared with the value in control rats of 735.3±24.2 mosmol/kg H2O (both P < 0.001 vs. control). At the same time the plasma AVP levels of 5.4±1.3 and 5.2±1.1 pg/ml in naloxone- and oxilorphan-treated rats, respectively, were significantly lower than the plasma AVP in control rats of 16.9±2.5 pg/ml (P < 0.001). In another three groups of rats the nonosmotic release of AVP was examined during hypovolemia induced by intraperitoneal 6% dextran (1.8 ml/100 g body wt). Following intraperitoneal administration of dextran the peak Uosm of 703.0±87.8 and 734.8±99.1 mosmol/kg H2O in naloxone- and oxilorphan-treated rats, respectively, was significantly less than the value in control rats of 1,169.3±135.5 mosmol/kg H2O (both P < 0.02 vs. control). A comparable decrease in blood volume of 13% occurred in all three groups of animals. During the dextran administration plasma AVP levels in naloxone- and oxilorphan-treated rats increased to 4.3±1.0 and 6.0±2.0 pg/ml, respectively; both of these values were significantly lower than the plasma AVP of 12.9±1.4 pg/ml in control rats (P < 0.02). The effect of opioid antagonists to impair the osmotic and nonosmotic release of AVP occurred in the absence of differences in mean arterial pressure, glomerular filtration rate and the renal response to AVP. These results, therefore, indicate that opioid peptides are involved in renal water excretion primarily by modulating the central release of AVP.
San-E Ishikawa, Robert W. Schrier
To determine the role of collagen-immunity in the development of collagen-induced arthritis, DBA/1 mice were immunized with type II collagen and observed for the development of polyarthritis. 96% of the mice immunized with native type II collagen developed inflammatory arthritis between 4 and 5 wk after primary immunization. Immunization with denatured type II collagen in exactly the same manner was not effective in inducing arthritis. Cell-mediated immunity in arthritic mice was assessed by measuring [3H]thymidine incorporation by mononuclear cells cultured in the presence of collagen. The maximal proliferative response to collagen occurred at 2 wk after immunization. Equally good incorporation of label occurred when cells were cultured with native or denatured type II collagen or type I collagen. The cellular response of nonarthritic mice immunized with denatured collagen was indistinguishable from that seen in arthritic mice. Humoral immunity was assessed by an ELISA assay for antibodies to collagen. The immunoglobulin M (IgM) response peaked at 2 wk and the IgG response at 5 wk after immunization. Antisera from arthritic mice immunized with native type II collagen were relatively specific for conformational determinants on the native type II molecule although some reactivity with denatured collagen was noted. Antisera from nonarthritic mice immunized with denatured collagen primarily recognized covalent structural determinants. It was concluded that native type II collagen was essential for the induction of arthritis and that an antibody response specific for native type II collagen may be important for the development of arthritis.
J M Stuart, A S Townes, A H Kang
Using the isolated perfused canine tibia we examined the extraction of [3H]25(OH)D3, [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 and [3H]24,25(OH)2D3 by bone of normal adult dogs. The studies were performed with and without vitamin D binding protein (DBP) in the perfusate to examine the effect of protein binding on the extraction of the vitamin D metabolites. An average of 48±2% of [3H]25(OH)D3 was extracted by bone, when no DBP was present. However, addition of only a small amount of DBP (∼720 ng/ml of perfusate) nearly completely abolished the extraction of [3H]25(OH)D3 by bone. No degradation and/or transformation of the labeled 25(OH)D3 could be demonstrated during passage through the isolated perfused bone. The extraction of [3H]24,25(OH)2D3 in a DBP-free medium averaged 33±5%. Addition of 720 ng of DBP/ml of perfusate completely inhibited the extraction of this metabolite. The extraction of [3H]1,25(OH)2D3 averaged 30±3% in a DBP free medium and no inhibition of the extraction was demonstrated after addition of DBP (720 ng/ml of perfusate). However, addition of DBP in a concentration of 14.4 μg/ml of perfusate reduced the extraction of 1,25(OH)2D3 to 8±2%, a value still significantly higher than that seen after addition of 20 times less DBP to perfusions with 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3. It is concluded that the isolated perfused bone of normal dogs can extract significant amounts of 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, and 24,25(OH)2D3. Small concentrations of DBP (720 ng/ml) in the perfusate significantly inhibited the extraction of 25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3. A carrier role for DBP is suggested and it is proposed that the levels of free vitamin D are important for extraction of the metabolites by bone. Therefore, due to the different affinities of DBP for the various metabolites of vitamin D, only 1,25(OH)2D3 is extracted in vitro in significant amounts by bone of normal adult dogs, in the presence of DBP.
K. Olgaard, J. Schwartz, D. Finco, M. Arbelaez, J. Haddad, L. Avioli, S. Klahr, E. Slatopolsky
To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for systemic and renal hemodynamic changes in early endotoxemia, the roles of prostaglandins (PG) and renal nerves were investigated. Endotoxin (E, 3 micrograms/kg i.v.) was given to two groups of anesthetized dogs that had undergone unilateral renal denervation: Group I (n = 9) E only; Group II (n = 11) E + indomethacin (10 mg/kg i.v.) or meclofenamate (5 mg/kg i.v.). A third group of dogs (Group III, n = 5) received indomethacin (10 mg/kg i.v.) only. 1 h after E group I dogs, mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased from 126 to 94 mm Hg (P less than 0.001), and prostacyclin (6-keto-Fl alpha metabolite, PGI2) increased (from 0.64 to 2.08 ng/ml, P less than 0.005). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal blood flow (RBF) declined comparably both in innervated and denervated kidneys. In marked contrast, group II dogs had a stable MAP (136-144 mm Hg, NS) and no increase in PGI2 levels. Plasma renin activity (0.7-2.5 ng/ml per h, P less than 0.005) increased, and renin secretion was greater in innervated compared with denervated kidneys (255 vs. 74 U/min, P less than 0.01) in these PG-inhibited dogs. In addition, denervated kidneys in group II dogs had a greater GFR (42 vs. 34 ml/min, P less than 0.01) and RFB (241 vs. 182 ml/min, P less than 0.01) than innervated kidneys after E. Group III animals had no significant changes in systemic or renal hemodynamics, plasma renin activity or PGI2 during the study. These results suggest that PGI2 mediates the systemic hypotension of early endotoxemia in the PG-intact animal. Moreover, PG inhibition uncovers an important effect of E to increase efferent renal nerve activity with a consequent decline in GFR and RBF independent of changes in MAP. Finally, the results demonstrate that renal nerves are important stimuli to renin secretion in early endotoxemia via pathways that are PG-independent.
W L Henrich, Y Hamasaki, S I Said, W B Campbell, R E Cronin
In an effect to determine how far inspired air could penetrate into the respiratory tract before being brought to body conditions, we measured the temperature in the airways of the anterior basilar segment of the right lower lobe in five normal subjects while they breathed air at subfreezing and ambient conditions. During quiet breathing, most of the heating of the incoming gas took place in the upper airways as expected. However, as the thermal burden was increased by rapid inspirations, frigid air, and hyperventilation, the temperature of the distal airways progressively fell and the point at which the incoming air reached body conditions moved deep into the periphery of the lung. These findings demonstrate that heat and water transfer is not localized to one region, but rather is a continuous process that begins the moment the air enters the body and involves as much of the respiratory tract as necessary to complete the task.
E R McFadden Jr, D M Denison, J F Waller, B Assoufi, A Peacock, T Sopwith
We have explored the possibility of using cultured lymphoblasts from patients with a deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) as a source of cells for the isolation and characterization of mutant forms of the enzyme. HPRT from lymphoblasts derived from six male patients of five unrelated HPRT-deficient families was highly purified and characterized with regard to: (a) level of immunoreactive protein, (b) absolute specific activity, (c) isoelectric point, (d) migration during nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and (e) apparent subunit molecular weight. There experiments were performed on small quantities of lymphoblasts using several micromethods involving protein blot analysis of crude extracts as well as isolation and characterization of enzyme labeled in culture with radioactive amino acids. The lymphoblast enzymes from four of the patients exhibited structural and functional abnormalities that were similar to the recently described abnormalities found with the highly purified erythrocyte enzymes from these same patients. In addition, a previously undescribed HPRT variant was isolated and characterized from lymphoblasts derived from two male siblings. This unique variant has been called HPRT Ann Arbor. We conclude that lymphoblastoid cell lines can be used as a source of cells for the detection, isolation, and characterization of structural variants of human HPRT.
J M Wilson, B W Baugher, P M Mattes, P E Daddona, W N Kelley
Serum from a patient with the CREST Syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus contained an IgM antibody that reacted at dilutions up to 1:800 with a fibrous cytoplasmic network in several epithelioid and fibroblastic cell lines. The antibody was shown by immunofluorescence microscopy to label a specific subset of cytoskeletal polymers, the intermediate filaments. The reactive antigen from this biochemically heterogeneous group of filaments was established as the 58,000-mol wt protein, vimentin: (a) the patient's serum reacts with a range of cell lines that contain intermediate filaments composed of vimentin, but not with cells whose intermediate filaments are composed of different protein subunits; (b) in PTK2 epithelioid cells the serum reacts with the class of filaments that coils around the nucleus after colchicine treatment (vimentin) and not with the filaments that remain dispersed after colchicine (prekeratin); and (c) the component of reactive cells that combines with the serum is shown by immunoelectrophoresis to be a 58,000-mol wt protein antigen. A similar antibody that binds intermediate filaments of PTK2 cells was encountered at lower titer in some sera from other patients with connective tissue diseases and in control sera. Previous routine antinuclear antibody assays using mouse liver or commercially prepared HEp-2 cells have failed to reveal anticytoskeletal antibodies in patient sera, perhaps due to inadequate presentation or preservation of cytoplasmic antigens.
J L Senecal, N F Rothfield, J M Oliver
Recent studies provide evidence for extrarenal production of 1 alpha ,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1 alpha ,25(OH)2D]. To investigate this possibility, serum vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [24,25(OH)2D], and 1 alpha ,25(OH)2D were measured in eight adult anephric subjects. All were undergoing hemodialysis and three of them were receiving vitamin D, 50,000 or 100,000 U/d. Serum vitamin D was elevated in two of the patients given vitamin D and was abnormally low in the others. Mean serum 25-OHD was increased in patients given vitamin D (94.0 +/- 7.6 ng/ml) and was normal in the others (16.4 +/- 0.9 ng/ml, P less than 0.001). Mean serum 24,25(OH)2D was normal in patients given vitamin D (1.38 +/- 0.27 ng/ml) and was low in the others (0.25 +/- 0.08 ng/ml, P less than 0.001). Serum 24,25(OH)2D correlated significantly with serum 25-OHD (r = 0.848, P less than 0.01). Mean serum 1 alpha ,25(OH)2D determined by receptor assay was 5.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml in patients who were not given vitamin D and was 14.1 +/- 0.6 in those who were given vitamin D (P less than 0.001). Serum 1 alpha ,25(OH)2D correlated significantly with serum 25-OHD (r = 0.911, P less than 0.01). Mean serum 1 alpha ,25(OH)2D, measured by bioassay, was 8.3 +/- 1.9 pg/ml in patients who were given vitamin D and was 15.9 +/- 2.4 pg/ml in those who were given vitamin D (P less than 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the values for serum 1 alpha ,25(OH)2D obtained with the two methods (r = 0.728, P less than 0.01). The results (a) provide evidence in man for extrarenal production of both 24,25(OH)2D and, by two independent assays, of 1 alpha , 25(OH)2D, and (b) indicate that serum values of the two dihydroxy metabolites of vitamin D in anephric subjects vary with the serum concentration of the precursor 25-OHD.
P W Lambert, P H Stern, R C Avioli, N C Brackett, R T Turner, A Greene, I Y Fu, N H Bell
Two in vitro systems were used to identify an antithrombin III cofactor activity on vascular endothelium. Langendorff rat heart preparations or columns packed with endothelium cultured on microcarrier beads were perfused with mixtures of purified thrombin and antithrombin III. With each preparation, accelerated inhibition of thrombin by antithrombin III occurred during passage over endothelium. Platelet factor 4, protamine sulfate and diisopropylphosphoryl thrombin, all antagonists of the antithrombin III cofactor activity of heparin, significantly reduced the capacity of the preparation to inhibit thrombin. It is concluded that a substance with the functional properties of a stationary phase cofactor for antithrombin III is present on the microvascular endothelium and there catalyzes the inactivation of circulating free thrombin.
C Busch, W G Owen
Biochemical abnormalities were studied in two brothers with bladder divericulas, inguinal hernias, slight skin laxity, and hyperelasticity and skeletal abnormalities including occipital exostoses. Lysyl oxidase activity was low in the medium of cultured skin fibroblasts, this abnormality being accompanied by reduced conversion of the newly synthesized collagen into the soluble form. Copper concentrations were markedly elevated in the cultured skin fibroblasts, but decreased in the serum and hair. Serum cerulophasmin levels were also low. The reduced lysyl oxidase activity is suggested to be responsible for ther clinical manifestations, but the deficiency in this copper-dependent enzyme may be secondary to the abnormalities in the metabolism of the cation. Nevertheless, a mutation directly affecting both lysyl oxidase and an intracellular copper transport protein cannot be excluded. The disease is tentatively classified as one subtype of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
H Kuivaniemi, L Peltonen, A Palotie, I Kaitila, K I Kivirikko