Abrupt withdrawal after the chronic administration of propranolol has resulted in clinical syndromes that suggest adrenergic hypersensitivity. The effect of propranolol administration and withdrawal on beta-adrenergic receptors was studied in human lymphocyte membranes. Receptor density was quantitated by direct binding assays with the radioligand [125I]iodohydroxybenzylpindolol. Administration of propranolol (160 mg/d) for 8 d resulted in trough plasma levels of approximately 35 ng/ml. By day 5 of propranolol administration the density of beta-adrenergic receptors had increased 43 +/- 4% (P less than 0.01) above pretreatment levels. Abrupt withdrawal of propranolol was followed by the disappearance of propranolol from the plasma within 24 h. The density of beta-adrenergic receptors did not return to pretreatment level for several days. Physiologic supersensitivity of beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated responses was suggested by the appearance of significant increases in the orthostatic change in heart rate (P less than 0.05) and the orthostatic change in the heart rate-systolic blood pressure product (P less than 0.01) during the first 48 h after propranolol withdrawal. These data show that propranolol administration leads to an increase in the density of beta-adrenergic receptors in human tissue. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that some of the untoward effects observed after abrupt discontinuation of propranolol are caused by beta-receptor-mediated adrenergic hypersensitivity.
R D Aarons, A S Nies, J Gal, L R Hegstrand, P B Molinoff
Isolated rat thymocytes were preincubated with various catecholamines, alone and together with 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3), and the accumulation of the glucose analogues, 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) and 3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MG), was then measured. Epinephrine induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in the 15-min accumulation of 2-DG; at a concentration of 100 μM epinephrine, the effect was evident after a preincubation period of only 5 min. The lowest concentration of epinephrine at which a significant effect was evident was 1 μM. Epinephrine also produced a dose-dependent increase in the accumulation of 3-O-MG, and the lowest concentration at which a significant effect was evident was again 1 μM. Isoproterenol, a β-adrenergic agonist, like epinephrine, increased the accumulation of 2-DG, whereas the α-agonist, phenylephrine, had no effect. The response to epinephrine was inhibited by the β-antagonist, alprenolol, but the α-antagonist, phentolamine, had no effect. As previously demonstrated, T3 increased 2-DG accumulation, and like epinephrine, its effect was blocked by alprenolol. Neither T3 (0.1 nM) nor epinephrine (0.1 μM) had any effect when acting alone, but when added together at these concentrations, they significantly increased the accumulation of both 2-DG and 3-O-MG. Neither T3 with isoproterenol nor T3 with phenylephrine produced a comparable synergistic effect. But T3 (0.1 nM) acting with isoproterenol (0.1 μM) and phenylephrine (0.1 μM) together, synergistically increased 2-DG accumulation. In addition, the α-antagonist, phentolamine, which alone had no effect, inhibited the synergistic effect induced by T3 and epinephrine. The effects of epinephrine and T3 alone, as well as their combined synergistic effect on 2-DG accumulation, were not blocked by the inhibitor of protein synthesis, puromycin.
Joseph Segal, Sidney H. Ingbar
Agents inhibiting calcium deposition into arteries are known to suppress atherosclerosis in animals. However, the precise role of calcium in atherogenesis is unknown. In this study, the specific Ca2+-antagonist lanthanum was used to attempt suppression of experimental atherosclerosis and to gain more insight into the possible effects of calcium on atherogenesis. Rabbits were fed an atherogenic diet with and without increasing doses of LaCl3. All cholesterol-fed rabbits showed marked increases in serum cholesterol and ca2+. Untreated atherogenic animals revealed pronounced gross and microscopic atherosclerosis and striking increases in the aortic content of cholesterol, collagen, "elastin," and calcium as well as of elastin calcium, polar amino acids, and cholesterol. With increasing LaCl3 dosage these abnormalities progressively decreased and were completely abolished at the highest dose. The ingested La3+ was absorbed only in small quantities and had no discernible effect on the calcium and connective tissue content of bone, skin, lung, heart, and skeletal muscle nor on myocardial function (left ventricle pressure and left ventricle dp/dt) or myocardial and muscle content in ATP and creatine phosphate. The data suggest that shifts in arterial Ca2+-distribution may play a decisive part in atherogenesis, and provision of arterial calcium homeostasis by La3+ a pivotal role in its prevention, despite hypercholesteremia. Other inhibitors of calcium deposition into arteries may exert their protective effect by similar mechanisms. However, a direct inhibition of atherogenesis by La3+ cannot entirely be ruled out in this study, although no direct effects of La3+ on tissue metabolism have as yet been reported.
D M Kramsch, A J Aspen, C S Apstein
To determine the physiological basis for the low glomerular filtration rate in chronic malnutrition, micropuncture studies were performed in Munich-Wistar rats chronically pair-fed isocaloric diets of either low (group 1, nine rats) or high protein content (group 2, nine rats). Despite the absence of hypoalbuminemia, average values for single nephron and total kidney glomerular filtration rate were nearly 35% lower in group 1 than in group 2. Mean values for glomerular capillary and Bowman's space hydraulic pressures were essentially identical in the two groups, thereby excluding glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure difference as the cause for the low filtration rates in group 1 animals. On the other hand, average glomerular capillary plasma flow rate and glomerular capillary ultrafiltration coefficient were significantly lower (by ∼25 and ∼50%, respectively) in group 1 than in group 2. The fall in glomerular capillary plasma flow rate was the consequence of increased afferent and efferent arteriolar resistances. Plasma and erythrocyte volumes were found to be equal in five additional pairs of group 1 and group 2 rats. Thus, the substantial alterations in the ultrafiltration coefficient, glomerular capillary plasma flow rate, and renal arteriolar resistances responsible for the low filtration rate in group 1 animals were not merely a consequence of decreased circulating blood or plasma volumes. Mean values for glomerular cross sectional area were significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 despite similar values for kidney weight in the two groups. This reduction in glomerular cross sectional area in group 1 rats is presumed to reflect a decrease in effective filtration surface area and therefore likely accounts, at least in part, for the decline in ultrafiltration coefficient observed in this group.
Iekuni Ichikawa, Mabel L. Purkerson, Saulo Klahr, Julia L. Troy, Manuel Martinez-Maldonado, Barry M. Brenner
Five of seven patients with idiopathic refractory sideroblastic anemia carried an HLA-A3 alloantigen (relative risk, 7.3; P = 0.02). The significance of this association was strengthened by study of two pedigrees. An abnormality in iron metabolism was found in two siblings who had an HLA-A3,B14 haplotype in common with the first proband. A second proband with idiopathic refractory sideroblastic anemia had clinically manifest hemochromatosis. His brother had clinically manifest hemochromatosis but not sideroblastic anemia. This proband and his brother shared only the HLA-A3,B12 haplotype. Our findings infer that patients with idiopathic refractory sideroblastic anemia carry a single allele for hemochromatosis, that this allele accounts for the increased iron loading in this form of anemia, and that clinically manifest hemochromatosis may develop in an occasional patient with only one allele for hemochromatosis in the presence of the sideroblastic factor.
G E Cartwright, C Q Edwards, M H Skolnick, D B Amos
Using a radioimmunoassay with labeled synthetic tetradecapeptide somatostatin, a large amount of immunoreactive somatostatin was found in the principal pancreatic islet of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctata). The purpose of these experiments was to isolate and characterize the somatostatin-like material. Extracts of islets were chromatographed on a Bio-Gel P-30 column, and over 90% of the immunoreactive somatostatin migrated with proteins at least twice the size of synthetic tetradecapeptide somatostatin. This fraction was further purified by ion-exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl-cellulose and DEAE-cellulose columns. Two peptides were obtained with identical immunoreactivity, which was ∼25% that of the synthetic somatostatin. Each peptide was judged to be >95% pure by thin-layer electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 8.9, and highpressure liquid chromatography. Further criteria of purity included amino-terminal analysis of fraction IV yielding only aspartic acid. A total of 1.3 mg of fraction II, and 3.8 mg of fraction IV somatostatin-like peptides were obtained from 10 g of fresh frozen islets.
Hideki Oyama, Harry J. Hirsch, Kenneth H. Gabbay, Alan Permutt
We have investigated whether changes in cellular fatty acid saturation can influence prostacyclin (PGI2) production by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. As compared to control cells, those enriched with linoleic acid released 60--75% less PGI2 in response to thrombin or the calcium ionophore A23187. A similar but considerably smaller effect was observed when the cells were enriched with oleic or linolenic acid, but no reduction occurred with palmitic or linoelaidic acids. Some reduction in PGI2 release was noted as early as 1 h after exposure to linoleic acid. When the culture medium was supplemented with linoleic acid, the cell phospholipids contained four to five times more linoleate and 25--40% less arachidonate. These changes were most marked in the choline and serine plus inositol phosphoglyceride fractions. When the fatty acid composition of the cells enriched with linoleic acid was allowed to revert, there was a progressive increase in the capacity of the cells to release PGI2 in response to thrombin. The increase correlated with a reduction in linoleate content of the cell lipids, but there was no change in arachidonate content. This suggests that linoleic acid may act as an inhibitor of PGI2 production. The cultured endothelial cells were also able to produce PGI2 directly from added arachidonic acid. As the arachidonic acid concentration of the medium was raised, PGI2 formation by the linoleate-enriched cells increased relative to control cells, suggesting that the inhibition produced by linoleic acid may be competitive.
A A Spector, J C Hoak, G L Fry, G M Denning, L L Stoll, J B Smith
The mechanism by which sex steroids influence very low density hepatic lipoprotein triglyceride production has not been fully elucidated. In previous studies we showed that [14C]oleate utilization and incorporation into triglycerides were greater in hepatocyte suspensions from adult female rats than from males. The sex differences were not related to activities of the enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid binding protein (FABP) concentration in liver cytosol was greater in females. These findings suggested that sex differences in lipoprotein could reflect a sex steroid influence on the availability of fatty acids for hepatocellular triglyceride biosynthesis. In the present studies, sex steroid effects on hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization and FABP concentration were investigated directly.
Robert K. Ockner, Nina Lysenko, Joan A. Manning, Scott E. Monroe, David A. Burnett
Paraquat and diquat facilitate formation of superoxide anion in biological systems, and lipid peroxidation has been postulated to be their mechanism of toxicity. Paraquat has been shown to be more toxic to selenium-deficient mice than to controls, presumably as the result of decreased activity of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase. The present study was designed to measure lipid peroxidation and to assess toxicity in control and selenium-deficient rats given paraquat and diquat. Lipid peroxidation was measured by determining ethane production rates of intact animals; toxicity was assessed by survival and by histological and serum enzyme evidence of liver and kidney necrosis. Paraquat and diquat were both much more toxic to selenium-deficient rats than to control rats. Diquat (19.5 μmol/kg) caused rapid and massive liver and kidney necrosis and very high ethane production rates in selenium-deficient rats. The effect of paraquat (78 μmol/kg) was similar to that of diquat but was not as severe. Acutely lethal doses of paraquat (390 μmol/kg) and diquat (230 μmol/kg) in control rats caused very little ethane production and no evidence of liver necrosis. These findings suggest that paraquat and diquat exert their acute toxicity largely through lipid peroxidation in selenium-deficient rats. Selenium deficiency had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes or in 105,000 g supernate of liver or kidney. Glutathione peroxidase, which represents the only well-characterized biochemical function of selenium in animals, was dissociated from the protective effect of selenium against diquat-induced lipid peroxidation and toxicity by a time-course study in which selenium-deficient rats were injected with 50 μg of selenium and later given diquat (19.5 μmol/kg). Within 10 h, the selenium injection provided significant protection against diquat-induced lipid peroxidation and mortality even though this treatment resulted in no rise in glutathione peroxidase activity of liver, kidney, lung, or plasma at 10 h. This suggests that a selenium-dependent factor in addition to glutathione peroxidase exists that protects against lipid peroxidation.
Raymond F. Burk, Richard A. Lawrence, James M. Lane
Subsequent to studies indicating that cholecystographic agents and sulfobromophthalein (BSP) inhibit uptake of thyroxine (T4) by rat liver slices, the effect of such compounds on hepatic storage of T4 in man has been examined. After intravenous administration of [125I]T4 to five normal subjects, hepatic radioactivity, estimated by external gamma counting, rose to a peak in ∼4 h and then declined in parallel with serum radioactivity. When a 6-g dose of the cholecystographic agent, tyropanoate (Bilopaque), was administered orally 3 d later, estimated hepatic extravascular radioactivity fell 50-60% within 4 h and then rose toward the pretyropanoate value. Concomitant with the fall in hepatic radioactivity, serum radioactivity rose 57-70%, as did stable T4 levels in serum, suggesting that hormone discharged from the liver entered the serum. Both uptake of T4 and discharge by tyropanoate were much less in two patients with liver disease.
James V. Felicetta, William L. Green, Wil B. Nelp
Studies of the photosensitized oxidation have demonstrated that photodynamic oxidation of methionine is mediated by singlet oxygen (1O2). In this study, we demonstrated that phagocytosing human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), but not resting PMN, oxidized both intracellular and extracellular methionine to methionine sulfoxide. N-ethylmaleimide, which inhibits phagocytosis and cellular metabolism, inhibited the oxidation of methionine. Neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease did not oxidize methionine even in the presence of phagocytosis. The oxidation of methionine by phagocytosing normal PMN was inhibited by 1O2 quenchers, (1.4-diazabicyclo-[2,2,2]-octane, tryptophan, NaN3), myeloperoxidase (MPO) inhibitors (NaN3, KCN) and catalase. In contrast, superoxide dismutase, ethanol, and mannitol had no effect. Furthermore, 1O2 quenchers did not interfere with the production of superoxide (O2−) by phagocytosing PMN. The combination of catalase and SOD did not enhance the inhibition of methionine by phagocytosing PMN. On the other hand, deuterium oxide stimulated the oxidation of methionine by PMN almost 200%.
Min-Fu Tsan, Jasmine W. Chen
To gain insight into the mechanism by which steroidal hormones influence the development of canine prostatic hyperplasia, nuclear and cytosolic androgen- and estrogen-receptor content, as measured under exchange conditions by the binding of [3H]R1881 (methyltrienolone) and [3H]estradiol, respectively, were quantitated in the prostates of purebred beagles of known age. In young dogs with spontaneously arising and experimentally induced (androstanediol plus estradiol treatment) prostatic hyperplasia, nuclear, but not cytosolic, prostatic androgen-receptor content was significantly greater than that determined in the normal prostates of age-matched dogs (3,452±222 and 4,035±274 fmol/mg DNA vs. 2,096±364 fmol/mg DNA, respectively). No differences were observed between the androgen-receptor content of the normal prostates of young dogs and the hyperplastic prostates of old dogs. The cytosolic and nuclear estrogen-receptor content of spontaneously arising prostatic hyperplasia in both young and old animals was similar to that found in normal prostates. The administration of estradiol plus androstanediol to castrate dogs significantly increased the prostatic nuclear androgen-receptor content over that found in dogs treated only with androstanediol. This estradiol-associated increase in nuclear androgen-receptor content was accompanied by the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
John Trachtenberg, L. Louise Hicks, Patrick C. Walsh
Experiments were designed to study whether or not the mechanism of handling dietary cholesterol in adulthood can be modulated by the manipulation of cholesterol homeostasis during neonatal period. The effects of enhancing cholesterol degradation (cholestyramine feeding), high dietary cholesterol intake, and early weaning during neonatal period of guinea pigs on their subsequent plasma cholesterol levels and the response to dietary cholesterol challenged in adulthood were investigated. Pretreatment of neonatal guinea pigs with cholestyramine resulted in (a) a lower plasma cholesterol level, (b) an increased excretion rate of fecal bile acids and total steroids, (c) an expanded bile acid pool, (d) an increased activity of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, and (e) no change in the hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (CoA) reductase activity when challenged with cholesterol in adulthood. Cholesterol pretreatment during neonatal period resulted in (a) no alteration in the plasma cholesterol level, (b) no alteration in the fecal excretion of steroids, or (c) no alteration in the cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity when they were challenged with a high cholesterol diet. Early weaning did not influence the fecal excretion of steroids or cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity but resulted in a slight decrease in the hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity when they were challenged with a high cholesterol diet. These results suggest that stimulation of cholesterol catabolism rather than cholesterol feeding or early weaning during neonatal period can influence the response to dietary cholesterol challenge in adulthood.
J R Li, L K Bale, B A Kottke
The effect of d-penicillamine (Pen) and mixtures of Pen and copper sulfate on the capacity of normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) to generate immunoglobulin-secreting cells (ISC) in response to the T-cell-dependent polyclonal B-cell activators pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and staphylococcal protein A (SPA) was examined. PBM obtained from normal individuals were incubated for 1-2 h at 37°C with medium alone, Pen, CuSO4, or a mixture of Pen and CuSO4. After washing, the cells were incubated for 6-7 d with PWM or SPA and then, with a reverse hemolytic plaque assay, assayed for the number of ISC generated. Preincubation of PBM with either Pen (100 μg/ml) or CuSO4 (2 μg/ml) did not alter the subsequent capacity of the cells to generate ISC in response to PWM or SPA. In contrast, responsiveness to both mitogens was nearly abolished when PBM were similarly preincubated with a mixture of Pen and CuSO4. Inhibition of responsiveness could not be ascribed to cell death, carry-over of the inhibitors, or an alteration in the concentration of PWM or the length of incubation yielding maximum responses. Co-culture experiments demonstrated that Pen and CuSO4 preincubation had not caused augmented suppressor cell function. Experiments in which PBM were separated into adherent and nonadherent populations indicated that Pen and CuSO4 preincubation inhibited the responsiveness of the nonadherent cells but did not alter the accessory cell function of monocytes. To determine whether Pen and CuSO4 preincubation effected T- or B-cell function, PBM were separated into B- and T-cell-enriched populations, individually preincubated with Pen and CuSO4, and then co-cultured with PWM. The results indicated that Pen and CuSO4 markedly inhibited helper T-cell function and had little effect on the capacity of B cells to generate ISC. The observation that in the presence of CuSO4 Pen inhibits helper T-cell activity may, in part, explain the therapeutic efficacy of Pen in rheumatoid arthritis and especially the capacity of Pen therapy to decrease antiglobulin titers in treated patients.
Peter E. Lipsky, Morris Ziff
Levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP) (but not cyclic GMP) in suspensions of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) increased promptly after exposure of the cells to stimuli such as the chemotactic peptide N-formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine, the immune complex bovine serum albumin/anti-bovine serum albumin and calcium ionophore A23187. cAMP increased rapidly, reaching a maximum of twice the basal level 10--45 s after stimulation; after 2--5 min the amount of cAMP had subsided to basal levels. Elevations in cAMP levels were concurrent with, or followed, membrane hyperpolarization (measured by uptake of the lipophilic cation triphenylmethyl phosphonium) and always preceded lysosomal enzyme release and superoxide anion (O2) production. Elevated cAMP levels could be uncoupled from these later events by removal of extracellular divalent cations, replacement of extracellular Na+ with K+ or choline+, and by use of low concentrations of stimulus; each of these conditions virtually abolished lysosomal enzyme release and O2 generation, while leaving the stimulated elevation of cAMP levels unimpaired. Calcium ionophore A23187 did not provoke membrane hyperpolarization, thus uncoupling changes in membrane potential from changes in cAMP levels. These data suggested that cAMP is not a critical component in the earliest steps of stimulus-secretion coupling. Surface stimulation of cells pretreated with prostaglandins E1 or I2 yielded very high levels of cAMP; these high levels may be an important part of the mechanism by which stable prostaglandins inhibit lysosomal enzyme release and O2 generation.
J E Smolen, H M Korchak, G Weissmann
Sympathetic activity in rats and mice is diminished by fasting and increased by sucrose feeding. The central neural mechanisms coordinating changes in the functional state of sympathetic nerves with changes in dietary intake are unknown, but a role for neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is suggested by the existence of sympathetic connections within the VMH and the importance of this region in the regulation of feeding behavior. To investigate the potential role of the VMH in dietary regulation of sympathetic activity [3H]norepinephrine turnover was measured in the hearts of fasted and sucrose-fed mice after treatment with gold thioglucose (AuTG). In control mice, norepinephrine (NE) turnover was 1.60±0.92 ng NE/heart per h (95% confidence limits) after 1 d of fasting and 4.58±0.98 after 3 d of sucrose feeding, although, in AuTG-treated mice, cardiac NE turnover in fasting was 5.45±1.56 and with sucrose feeding, 5.44±0.76. Experiments with ganglionic blockade indicate that the absence of dietary effect on NE turnover in AuTG-treated mice reflects a corresponding lack of change in central sympathetic outflow. AuTG administration, therefore, disrupts dietary regulation of sympathetic activity by abolishing the suppression of sympathetic activity that occurs with fasting. This effect of AuTG is unrelated to duration of fasting (up to 3 d) and is specific for AuTG because neither treatment with another gold thio compound (gold thiomalate) nor the presence of genetic obesity (ob/ob) prevented fasting suppression of sympathetic activity. Moreover, AuTG treatment did not impair sympathetic activation by cold exposure (4°C) nor adrenal medullary stimulation by 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Thus, AuTG treatment selectively impairs dietary regulation of sympathetic activity, possibly by destruction of neurons in the VMH.
James B. Young, Lewis Landsberg
The effect of various diuretics on H+ secretion was studied in the isolated short-circuited urinary bladder of the turtle. Mucosal (urinary) chlorothiazide stimulated H+ secretion promptly, from 1.33 +/- 0.24 to 3.03 +/- 0.25 mueq/h (P less than 0.001). The effect was rapidly reversible upon washout of the drug, H+ returning to control levels, 1.37 +/- 0.26 mueq/h (P less than 0.001). Similar effects were observed with mucosal hydrochlorothiazide and mucosal ethacrynic acid/cysteine. Stimulation of H+ secretion occurred in the presence or the absence of exogenous CO2, in the presence or absence of mucosal Na+ and during inhibition of Na+ transport by ouabain. There was no stimulation of H+ secretion by uncomplexed ethacrynic acid or by mucosal furosemide. The nondiuretic sulfonamide, sulfasoxizole, and the nonsulfonamide buffer, borate, had no effect on H+ SECRETION. These observations indicate that the stimulatory effect of diuretics on H+ secretion is not related to active sodium transport, transepithelial electrical potential, or the buffering capacity of the drugs. Since the transepithelial pH gradient at which active H+ secretion was abolished was identical for chlorothiazide-treated tissues (2.68 pH U) as for control tissues (2.65 pH U, NS), the data suggest that the protonmotive force of the H+ pump was unaffected by the diuretic. This observation, plus the rapid onset and reversibility of the drugs, is consistent with an effect on the mucosal membrane to increase H+ conductance (K). The findings raise the possibility that direct enhancement of renal H+ secretion may play a role in the metabolic alkalosis induced by some diuretics.
P D Lief, B F Mutz, N Bank
Endotoxin treatment of adult rats before hyperoxic exposure significantly increases their survival rate in >95% O2 (J. Clin. Invest.61: 269, 1978). In this study, we wished to determine: (a) whether endotoxin would protect against O2 toxicity if it were administered after the animals were already in >95% O2 for 12-48 h; and (b) the relationship between the endogenous antioxidant enzymes of the lung and the protective effect of endotoxin treatment.
L. Frank, J. Summerville, D. Massaro
Organ uptake of 125I-hydroxybenzylpindolol, a potent beta adrenergic antagonist, was determined after intravenous administration. Pretreatment with the beta agonist, epinephrine, inhibited an almost identical fraction of 125I-hydroxybenzylpindolol binding as did the antagonist, propranolol. Specific beta receptor binding accounted for 50% of total uptake in the lung and demonstrated the following characteristics. The dose-response curve for propranolol inhibition of 125I-hydroxybenzylpindolol binding duplicated that reported for its physiologic action. Simultaneous serum propranolol levels as determined by a sensitive radioimmunoassay allowed an apparent dissociation rate constant approximately 7 nM to be obtained that correlated closely with the results reported from membrane binding studies. Alpha blockade had no effect and inhibition of 125I-hydroxybenzylpindolol binding by propranolol demonstrated stereospecificity. After chemical sympathectomy with reserpine or 6-OH dopamine, there was a 100% increase in receptor specific binding. Finally, a scintillation camera was employed to visually and quantitatively detect 125I-hydroxybenzylpindolol displacement from the lung during intravenous propranolol administration in the living animal. Reversal of binding was rapid and an in vivo inhibition curve was generated. Such a method provides the potential for longitudinally assessing beta receptor occupancy and apparent affinity directly in man.
C J Homcy, H W Strauss, S Kopiwoda
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is considered to be the principal mediator of the enteroinsular axis. A glucose-insulin clamp technique was used to study the effects of differing blood glucose levels on the insulinotropic and glucagonotropic actions of fat-stimulated GIP in seven healthy subjects, as well as the effect of physiologic hyperinsulinemia on GIP secretion. Blood glucose levels were clamped for 4 h at 43±2 mg/dl (hypoglycemic clamp), 88±1 mg/dl (euglycemic clamp), and 141±2 mg/dl (hyperglycemic clamp) in the presence of a constant insulin infusion (100 m U/kg per h).
C. A. Verdonk, R. A. Rizza, R. L. Nelson, V. L. W. Go, J. E. Gerich, F. J. Service
We have investigated the relationship between the administration of triiodothyronine (T3) and a high carbohydrate (CHO) fat-free diet in the induction of lipogenic enzymes in two rat tissues, liver, and fat. Male thyroidectomized rats were treated with graded daily doses of T3 and either supplemented with a high CHO diet or left on a regular diet. Enzymes studied included malic enzyme (ME), fatty acid synthetase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. In the liver, all four lipogenic enzymes showed a synergistic response between T3 administration and high CHO feeding. In fat, ME also responded synergistically. The interaction was reflected in an increased sensitivity to T3. The dose of T3 required to achieve 50% maximal response was reduced three- to seven-fold by the high CHO diet. This phenomenon could not be attributed to a dietary-induced alteration either in T3 metabolism or in number or affinity of the T3-nuclear receptors. Moreover, studies of the relative rate of synthesis of ME suggested a simultaneous time of onset in the induction of ME, within 2 h after the application of either T3 or CHO. Thus, it is unlikely that either stimulus is secondary to the other. Since parallel experiments from this laboratory (Towle, Mariash, and Oppenheimer,1980.Changes in hepatic levels of messenger ribonucleic acid for malic enzyme during induction by thyroid hormone or diet. Biochemistry. 19: 579-585.) show that ME induction both by CHO and T3 is mediated by an increase in specific messenger RNA for ME, the interaction of T3 and the dietary factor occurs at a pretanslational level.
C N Mariash, F E Kaiser, H L Schwartz, H C Towle, J H Oppenheimer
The conversion of endogenous hepatic heme to bilirubin and CO is established. However, it is unknown whether this process is quantitative or whether heme may be degraded to other products as well. To study this question, we administered the heme precursor, delta-amino-[5-14C]levulinic acid to rats in vivo. In liver, [14C]heme was predominately associated with microsomal cytochromes, and its degradation was examined over a period of 12--14 h; concurrently, excretion of labeled carbon monoxide 14CO by the animal was measured. After correction for 14CO derived from the breakdown of renal [14C]heme, the rate of heme degradation calculated from the 14CO excreted was substantially less than the rate of disappearance of hepatic [14C]heme measured directly. The discrepancy between actual loss of labeled heme from the liver and generation of labeled CO was confirmed by direct study of endogenous [14C]heme degradation in primary hepatocyte culture, in which only 25% of the labeled heme disappearing during the incubation was converted to 14CO. By contrast, cultured cells converted exogenous [14C]heme nearly quantitatively to 14CO. We conclude that heme associated with microsomal cytochromes in normal rat liver is degraded substantially by non-CO forming processes.
D M Bissell, P S Guzelian
During the large epidemic of serogroups A and C meningococcal disease in Brazil, we studied the immunologic response to meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine in infants born to women vaccinated during pregnancy. Radioimmunoassay serum levels against serogroups A and C polysaccharide were more than threefold higher in vaccinated than in unvaccinated women at delivery. Cord blood levels were also threefold or higher in infants whose mothers were vaccinated while pregnant compared to infants born of unvaccinated mothers. Within 3 mo, the infants' A and C serum antibody levels declined by approximately 80%. When vaccinated at about 6 mo of age, infants born of vaccinated mothers had antibody responses to A and C polysaccharide vaccines indistinguishable from those born of unvaccinated mothers. The response did not vary with the trimester of vaccination. We conclude that the vaccination of pregnant women with groups A and C meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine does not produce immune tolerance in the subsequently born infants.
J B McCormick, H H Gusmão, S Nakamura, J B Freire, J Veras, G Gorman, J C Feeley, P Wingo
Blood-brain barrier permeability studies made in man using the indicator dilution method revealed that the extraction of the test substance increases during the upslope of the venous (outflow) dilution curve. The present study aimed to obviate the possibility that this could result from intravascular phenomena, such as interlaminar diffusion (the result of differences in molecular size) and erythrocyte carriage. Several reference substances were employed for the determination of the extraction in order that careful correction could be made for differences in intravascular behavior of the test and reference substance. The test substances studied were D-glucose, L-phenylalanine, water, propranolol, and benzodiazepines, representing both carrier-transported and lipophilic substances. In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, Na+, Cl-, L-glucose, and L-lysine were employed as reference substances. For all the substances tested, and after correction for intravascular phenomena, the extractions were found to increase during the initial part of the dilution curve. This increasing extraction can be ascribed to heterogeneity of the cerebral circulation; the higher extraction corresponds to longer contact with the blood-brain barrier and indicates a longer transit time. Signs of heterogeneity were also present when blood flow was elevated above normal. Any influence that heterogeneity might have on the mean extraction value can be minimized by using an appropriate calculation of the extraction of the test substance.
M M Hertz, O B Paulson
Uptake of bilirubin, sulfobromophthalein (BSP), and other organic anions by the liver is a process with kinetics consistent with carrier mediation. The molecular basis of this transport mechanism is unknown. In the search for the putative organic anion carrier or receptor, the interaction of BSP with rat liver cell plasma membrane (LPM) has been studied. Specific binding of [35S]BSP to LPM was determined using a filtration assay. Results revealed high affinity (Ka = 0.27 μM−1), saturable (6.3 nmol/mg protein) binding, which was eliminated after preincubation with trypsin. Although [35S]BSP was strongly bound to LPM, the binding was rapidly reversible, preventing direct identification and study of a specific binding site(s). To avoid this problem, a photoaffinity probe was devised, in which [35S]BSP is covalently bound to LPM after exposure to ultraviolet light. Subsequent sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and fluorography revealed radioactivity predominantly associated with a single 55,000-mol wt protein. A protein with identical electrophoretic mobility was purified from deoxycholate solubilized LPM after affinity chromatography on glutathione-BSP-agarose gel. This protein migrated as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and on urea gel isoelectric focusing. It contained 1-2 residues of sialic acid per 55,000-dalton protein, and was immunologically distinct from rat albumin and ligandin. It bound bilirubin with a Kd of 20 μM, as determined by tryptophan fluorescence quenching. Although the high affinity of this LPM protein for organic anions suggests that it may function as a hepatocellular organic anion receptor, its role in transport of these compounds is unknown.
Allan W. Wolkoff, Cathie T. Chung
The net renal metabolism of amino acids and ammonia in the post absorptive state was evaluated in subjects with normal renal function and in patients with chronic renal insufficiency by measuring renal uptake and release, and urinary excretion of free amino acids and ammonia. In normal subjects the kidney extracts glutamine, proline, citrulline, and phenylalanine and releases serine, arginine, taurine, threonine, tyrosine, ornithine, lysine, and perhaps alanine. The renal uptake of amino acids from arterial blood occurs by way of plasma only, whereas approximately a half of amino acid release takes place by way of blood cells. Glycine is taken up from arterial plasma, while similar amounts of this amino acid are released by way of blood cells. In the same subjects total renal ammonia production can be largely accounted for by glutamine extracted. In patients with chronic renal insufficiency (a) the renal uptake of phenylalanine and the release of taurine and ornithine disappear; (b) the uptake of glutamine and proline, and the release of serine and threonine are reduced by 80--90%; (c) the uptake of citrulline and the release of alanine, arginine, tyrosine, and lysine are reduced by 60--70%; (d) no exchange of glycine is detectable either by way of plasma or by way of blood cells; (e) exchange of any other amino acid via blood cells disappears, and (f) total renal ammonia production is reduced and not more than 35% of such production can be accounted for by glutamine extracted, so that alternative precursors must be used. A 140% excess of nitrogen release found in the same patients suggests an intrarenal protein and peptide breakdown, which eventually provides free amino acids for ammonia production.
A Tizianello, G De Ferrari, G Garibotto, G Gurreri, C Robaudo
Past investigation has revealed that the circadian rhythm of intestinal sucrase activity in rats is primarily cued by the time of feeding. We examined the mechanism of the circadian rhythm by methods involving quantitative immunoprecipitation of sucrase-isomaltase protein and study of decay of radioactively labeled protein. Rats were placed on a controlled feeding regimen (1000-1500 h) and then sacrificed at 3-h intervals over a 24-h period. Immunotitration experiments indicated that the circadian rhythm was the result of changes in the absolute amount of sucrase-isomaltase protein present and not of changes in the enzyme's catalytic efficiency.
Mark A. Kaufman, Helen A. Korsmo, Ward A. Olsen
A preparation of microvillous membrane vesicles from human placental syncytiotrophoblast binds transferrin to specific transferrin receptors. Transferrin binding to placental receptors is rapid, saturable, reversible, and specific. Approximately 2.5 X 10(13) receptors are present per milligram of membrane protein; the apparent association constant of transferrin for the placental receptor is 2.2 X 10(7) X M-1. No evidence for removal of iron from transferrin bound to intact membrane receptors was observed in these studies. Nonionic detergent solubilization and partial purification of the microvillous membrane transferrin receptor were carried out with preservation of the functional properties of the receptor.
T T Loh, D A Higuchi, F M van Bockxmeer, C H Smith, E B Brown
Micropuncture study was performed in 21 mildly volume-expanded Munich-Wistar rats before and during partial aortic constriction to examine the effects of endogenous prostaglandins (PG) and angiotensin II (AII) on single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) and absolute proximal reabsorption rate (APR). Animals received either vehicle (group 1), indomethacin (group 2), or indomethacin plus saralasin (group 3). Before aortic constriction, these inhibitors were without effect on values of SNGFR and APR. In group 1 rats, reduction in mean renal arterial perfusion pressure (R̄ĀP̄) to ∼65 mm Hg resulted in marked and proportional declines in SNGFR and APR. With equivalent reduction in R̄ĀP̄ in group 2 rats, however, SNGFR fell to a lesser extent and APR tended to increase slightly above preconstriction values. Indomethacin administration was therefore associated with disruption of glomerulotubular balance. In view of the roughly equivalent declines in afferent arteriolar resistance measured in groups 1 and 2, the magnitude of increase in efferent arteriolar resistance (RE) appeared to be of major importance in determining the observed presence or absence of glomerulotubular balance. Thus, the lesser fall in SNGFR in group 2 than in group 1 was a result of the higher value for glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure in group 2, a consequence of the higher value of RE. The higher average value for APR during reduced R̄ĀP̄ in group 2 than in group 1 is also attributable to this pronounced rise in RE, the effect of which was to augment the net reabsorptive pressure both by favoring higher postglomerular oncotic pressure and lower downstream (peritubular capillary) hydraulic pressure. Since intrarenal release of AII is enhanced when R̄ĀP̄ declines, and because AII is known to raise RE selectively, it is likely that endogenous AII brought about the marked increase in RE in group 2, which was readily demonstrable only in indomethacin-treated rats, presumably because endogenous PG synthesis was suppressed.
Iekuni Ichikawa, Barry M. Brenner
The regulation of in vitro antibody synthesis by antiidiotypic antibodies was studied in a child with hypogammaglobulinemia and a serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 kappa M component. A rabbit antiserum was raised against the purified M component and was rendered idiotype specific by extensive absorption with Cohn fraction II and with IgG derived from the patient's parents. Hemagglutination-inhibition studies demonstrated that less than 1 in 300,000 molecules of pooled human IgG carried M component-related idiotypic determinants. 12% of the patient's B cells, but none of her T cells, expressed idiotypic determinants on their surface. Spontaneous de novo synthesis of the M component by the patient's peripheral blood lymphocytes was demonstrated in vitro and was shown to proceed independently of the polyclonal activator pokeweed mitogen. Antiidiotypic rabbit IgG, but not its F(ab')2, fragments, profoundly inhibited the synthesis of M component by the patient's peripheral blood lymphocytes. We concluded that antiidiotypic antibodies may play a role in the regulation of antibody synthesis in man.
F Mudawwar, Z Awdeh, K Ault, R S Geha
Analysis of multiple noninvasive tests offers the promise of more accurate diagnosis of coronary artery disease, but discordant test responses can occur frequently and, when observed, result in diagnostic uncertainty. Accordingly, 43 patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography were evaluated by noninvasive testing and the results subjected to analysis using Bayes' theorem of conditional probability. The procedures used included electrocardiographic stress testing for detection of exercise-induced ST segment depression, cardiokymographic stress testing for detection of exercise-induced precordial dyskinesis, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy for detection of exercise-induced relative regional hypoperfusion, and cardiac fluoroscopy for detection of coronary artery calcification. The probability for coronary artery disease was estimated by Bayes' theorem from each patient's age, sex, and symptom classification, and from the observed test responses. This analysis revealed a significant linear correlation between the predicted probability for coronary artery disease and the observed prevalence of angiographic disease over the entire range of probability from 0 to 100% (P less than 0.001 by linear regression). The 12 patients without angiographic disease had a mean posttest likelihood of only 7.0 +/- 2.6% despite the fact that 13 of the 60 historical and test responses were falsely "positive." In contrast, the mean posttest likelihood was 94.1 +/- 2.8% in the 31 patients with angiographic coronary artery disease, although 45 of the 155 historical and test responses were falsely "negative." In 8 of the 12 normal patients, the final posttest likelihood was under 10% and in 26 of the 31 coronary artery disease patients, it was over 90%. These estimates also correlated well with the pooled clinical judgment of five experienced cardiologists (P less than 0.001 by linear regression). The observed change in probability for disease for each of the 15 different test combinations correlated with their information content predicted according to Shannon's theorem (P less than 0.001 by linear regression). These results support the use of probability analysis in the clinical diagnosis of coronary artery disease and provide a formal basis for comparing the relative diagnostic effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different test combinations.
G A Diamond, J S Forrester, M Hirsch, H M Staniloff, R Vas, D S Berman, H J Swan
The effects of prostaglandins E2 and I2 on accumulation of [14C]aminopyrine and the generation of cyclic AMP by fractions of dispersed canine gastric mucosal cells, enriched in their content of parietal cells, have been studied. The parietal cell content of the fractions was enriched to between 43 and 70% using an elutriator rotor. The accumulation of [14C]aminopyrine was used as the index of parietal cell response to stimulation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 0.1 nM-0.1 mM) inhibited histamine stimulated aminopyrine uptake but did not block the response to carbachol, gastrin, or dibuturyl cyclic AMP. PGE2 did, however, inhibit aminopyrine uptake stimulated by carbachol and gastrin when the response to these agents was potentiated by histamine. PGE2 (0.1 NM-0.1 mM) inhibited histamine-stimulated cyclic AMP production in a dose-dependent fashion with maximal inhibition at 1 microM PGE2. Prostacyclin also inhibited both histamine-stimulated aminopyrine accumulation and histamine-stimulated cyclic AMP production. In the absence of added histamine, PGE2 in concentrations above 1 microM and prostacyclin in concentrations above 10 microM stimulated cyclic AMP production, probably by acting on the nonparietal cells as shown in previous studies. These present data are consistent with the hypothesis that prostaglandins E2 and I2 inhibit the response of isolated parietal cells to histamine by specifically blocking histamine-stimulated cyclic AMP production.
A H Soll
Binding of insulin to islets of Langerhans was studied. It was found that "specific" binding of [125I]insulin ("specific" binding equals total binding minus nonspecific binding) was saturable with respect to time and insulin concentration and depended on the number of incubated islets. Furthermore, bound insulin was displaced by native insulin in a dose-dependent manner. Bound [125I]insulin was easily dissociated and there was little [125I]insulin degradation both in the incubation medium and during the processes of binding and dissociation. Scatchard analysis of experiments with increasing [125I]insulin concentration and with displacement of insulin binding by native insulin revealed "high affinity" binding sites with a dissociation constant of 0.461 +/- 0.08 n M and 3.5 X 10(6) high affinity binding sites per islet. There also existed "low affinity" binding sites with dissociation constant (Kd) of 43.9 +/- 11.6 nM and 5.9 X 10(7) low affinity binding sites. High affinity binding sites of islets from rats pretreated with alloxan decreased by about one half, whereas Kd was unaffected. Because the Kd of specific high affinity binding and mean effective dose (ED50) of the biological effects of insulin on normal pancreatic islets are in the same range (between 0.46 and 1.19 nM), the insulin-receptor interaction may be biologically significant.
E J Verspohl, H P Ammon
Most patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, and a variable but lesser percentage of normal subjects, have precipitating antibodies to a nuclear antigen, rheumatoid arthritis nuclear antigen, present in Epstein-Barr virus-infected human B lymphoblastoid cells. We have used a sensitive indirect immunofluorescence assay for antibody to rheumatoid arthritis nuclear antigen in a study of patients with infectious mononucleosis and healthy control subjects. Of 110 sera from normal, college-age cadets, 58 were from individuals without prior Epstein-Barr virus infection, as indicated by the lack of antibody to viral capsid antigen. All of these also lacked activity to rheumatoid arthritis nuclear antigen. 52 sera were positive for antibody to viral capsid antigen, and antibody to rheumatoid arthritis nuclear antigen was present in 26 (50%) of these. In 67 sequential sera from 11 college-age students with infectious mononucleosis who became positive for antibody to rheumatoid arthritis nuclear antigen, only 2 were positive during the 1 mo. Thereafter the incidence and titers increased progressively through the 1st yr after infection. This time-course resembled that for the development of antibody to Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen, another transformation antigen in Epstein-Barr virus-infected B lymphocytes. The development of positivity for both was much later than that of antibody to the structural viral capsid antigen, which in the current study was always positive by 1 wk. Thus, antibody to rheumatoid arthritis nuclear antigen is present in a large proportion of normal individuals and can now be clearly ascribed, from both in vivo and in vitro studies, to prior infection with Epstein-Barr virus.
Michael A. Catalano, Dennis A. Carson, James C. Niederman, Paul Feorino, John H. Vaughan
The aim of this study was to determine the ability of disodium dichloromethylene diphosphonate (Cl2MDP) to reduce the hypercalcemia secondary to skeletal metastases and induced by stimulation of bone resorption by malignant cells. Five patients with hypercalcemia due to bone metastases of breast or renal cancer were treated orally for 4 wk with 3,200 mg of Cl2MDP and 4 wk with a placebo in a double blind, crossover study. During the Cl2MDP period of administration four patients experienced a rapid and significant decrease in serum calcium and urinary calcium excretion together with an increase in alkaline phosphatase. In the remaining patient who developed a sudden paraplegia at the onset of the therapy followed by a marked increase in serum calcium levels and urinary calcium excretion, Cl2MDP was able to reverse this worsening of hypercalcemia or to reduce serum and urinary calcium to normal values. For all patients, urinary hydroxyproline excretion was unchanged during the Cl2MDP period when compared with the prestudy or placebo periods. From these results, and because of the rapid relapse of hypercalcemia during the placebo period or after withdrawal of the treatment, we can conclude that Cl2MDP is capable of reducing excessive mobilization of calcium resulting from bone metastases.
M C Chapuy, P J Meunier, C M Alexandre, E P Vignon