Amy D. Bradshaw, E. Helene Sage
David T. Denhardt, Masaki Noda, Anthony W. O’Regan, Dubravko Pavlin, Jeffrey S. Berman
Stephen P.L. Cary, Michael A. Marletta
Ethylin Wang Jabs
William P. Arend
The pathogenetic basis for diabetic neuropathy has been enigmatic. Using two different animal models of diabetes, we have investigated the hypothesis that experimental diabetic neuropathy results from destruction of the vasa nervorum and can be reversed by administration of an angiogenic growth factor. Nerve blood flow, as measured by laser Doppler imaging or direct detection of a locally administered fluorescent lectin analogue, was markedly attenuated in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes, consistent with a profound reduction in the number of vessels observed. A severe peripheral neuropathy developed in parallel, characterized by significant slowing of motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, compared with nondiabetic control animals. In contrast, 4 weeks after intramuscular gene transfer of plasmid DNA encoding VEGF-1 or VEGF-2, vascularity and blood flow in the nerves of treated animals were similar to those of nondiabetic control rats; constitutive overexpression of both transgenes resulted in restoration of large and small fiber peripheral nerve function. Similar experiments performed in a rabbit model of alloxan-induced diabetes produced comparable results. These findings support the notion that diabetic neuropathy results from microvascular ischemia involving the vasa nervorum and suggest the feasibility of a novel treatment strategy for patients in whom peripheral neuropathy constitutes a secondary complication of diabetes.
Peter Schratzberger, Dirk H. Walter, Kilian Rittig, Ferdinand H. Bahlmann, Roberto Pola, Cynthia Curry, Marcy Silver, Joseph G. Krainin, David H. Weinberg, Allan H. Ropper, Jeffrey M. Isner
The relationship between abnormal cell proliferation and aberrant control of hormonal secretion is a fundamental and poorly understood issue in endocrine cell neoplasia. Transgenic mice with parathyroid-targeted overexpression of the cyclin D1 oncogene, modeling a gene rearrangement found in human tumors, were created to determine whether a primary defect in this cell-cycle regulator can cause an abnormal relationship between serum calcium and parathyroid hormone response, as is typical of human primary hyperparathyroidism. We also sought to develop an animal model of hyperparathyroidism and to examine directly cyclin D1’s role in parathyroid tumorigenesis. Parathyroid hormone gene regulatory region–cyclin D1 (PTH–cyclin D1) mice not only developed abnormal parathyroid cell proliferation, but also developed chronic biochemical hyperparathyroidism with characteristic abnormalities in bone and, notably, a shift in the relationship between serum calcium and PTH. Thus, this animal model of human primary hyperparathyroidism provides direct experimental evidence that overexpression of the cyclin D1 oncogene can drive excessive parathyroid cell proliferation and that this proliferative defect need not occur solely as a downstream consequence of a defect in parathyroid hormone secretory control by serum calcium, as had been hypothesized. Instead, primary deregulation of cell-growth pathways can cause both the hypercellularity and abnormal control of hormonal secretion that are almost inevitably linked together in this common disorder.
Yasuo Imanishi, Yoshitaka Hosokawa, Katsuhiko Yoshimoto, Ernestina Schipani, Sanjay Mallya, Alexandros Papanikolaou, Olga Kifor, Takehiko Tokura, Marilyn Sablosky, Felicia Ledgard, Gloria Gronowicz, Timothy C. Wang, Emmett V. Schmidt, Charles Hall, Edward M. Brown, Roderick Bronson, Andrew Arnold
Elevated serum levels of uric acid have been associated with an increased risk for gout, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and renal failure. The molecular mechanisms for the diminished excretion of urate in these disorders, however, remain poorly understood. Human galectin 9, which is highly homologous to the rat urate transporter rUAT, has been reported to be a secreted or cytosolic protein. We provide data that galectin 9 is hUAT, the first identified human urate transporter. hUAT is a highly selective urate ion channel when inserted in lipid bilayers. When expressed in renal epithelial cells it is an integral plasma membrane protein with at least two transmembrane domains. The gene for hUAT consists of 11 exons and is mapped to chromosome 17; a highly homologous gene, hUAT2, maps to a nearby region of chromosome 17 and is also likely to be a urate transporter. hUAT is expressed in a wide variety of tissues and is present in at least three isoforms; hUAT2 is less widely expressed at severalfold lower levels than hUAT. Further knowledge about the functions of hUAT, its isoforms, and hUAT2, as well as mutational analysis of hUAT1 and hUAT2 in individuals or families with hyperuricemia, should significantly improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of urate homeostasis.
Michael S. Lipkowitz, Edgar Leal-Pinto, Joshua Z. Rappoport, Vesna Najfeld, Ruth G. Abramson
Degradation of ECM, particularly interstitial collagen, promotes plaque instability, rendering atheroma prone to rupture. Previous studies implicated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in these processes, suggesting that dysregulated MMP activity, probably due to imbalance with endogenous inhibitors, promotes complications of atherosclerosis. We report here that the serine proteinase inhibitor tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) can function as an MMP inhibitor. TFPI-2 diminished the ability of the interstitial collagenases MMP-1 and MMP-13 to degrade triple-helical collagen, the primary load-bearing molecule of the ECM within human atheroma. In addition, TFPI-2 also reduced the activity of the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9. In contrast to the “classical” tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), TFPI-2 expression in situ correlated inversely with MMP levels in human atheroma. TFPI-2 colocalized primarily with smooth muscle cells in the normal media as well as the plaque’s fibrous cap. Conversely, the macrophage-enriched shoulder region, the prototypical site of matrix degradation and plaque rupture, stained only weakly for TFPI-2 but intensely for gelatinases and interstitial collagenases. Evidently, human mononuclear phagocytes, an abundant source of MMPs within human atheroma, lost their ability to express this inhibitor during differentiation in vitro. These findings establish a new, anti-inflammatory function of TFPI-2 of potential pathophysiological significance for human diseases, including atherosclerosis.
Michael P. Herman, Galina K. Sukhova, Walter Kisiel, Don Foster, Marilyn R. Kehry, Peter Libby, Uwe Schönbeck
To study the effects of IL-1α in arthritis, we generated human IL-1α (hIL-1α). Transgenic mice expressed hIL-1α mRNA in various organs, had high serum levels of hIL-1α, and developed a severe polyarthritic phenotype at 4 weeks of age. Not only bone marrow cells but also synoviocytes from knee joints produced biologically active hIL-1α. Synovitis started 2 weeks after birth, and 8-week-old mice showed hyperplasia of the synovial lining layer, the formation of hyperplastic synovium (pannus) and, ultimately, destruction of cartilage. Hyperplasia of the synovial lining was due to the accumulation of macrophage-like cells expressing F4/80 molecules. hIL-1α was widely distributed in macrophage- and fibroblast-like cells of the synovial lining cells, as well as synovial fluid monocytes. T and B cells were rare in the synovial fluid, and analysis of marker expression suggests that synoviocytes were directly histolytic and did not act as antigen-presenting cells. In the joints of these mice, we found elevated levels of cells of the monocyte/macrophage and granulocyte lineages and of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), most of which expressed Gr-1, indicating that they were mature, tissue-degrading PMNs. Cultured synoviocytes and PMNs from these animals overexpress GM-CSF, suggesting that the hematopoietic changes induced by IL-1 and the consequent PMN activation and joint destruction are mediated by this cytokine.
Yasuo Niki, Harumoto Yamada, Shuhji Seki, Toshiyuki Kikuchi, Hironari Takaishi, Yoshiaki Toyama, Kyosuke Fujikawa, Norihiro Tada
Osteoclastic bone resorption requires cell-matrix contact, an event mediated by the αvβ3 integrin. The structural components of the integrin that mediate osteoclast function are, however, not in hand. To address this issue, we generated mice lacking the β3 integrin gene, which have dysfunctional osteoclasts. Here, we show the full rescue of β3–/– osteoclast function following expression of a full-length β3 integrin. In contrast, truncated β3, lacking a cytoplasmic domain (hβ3Δc), is completely ineffective in restoring function to β3–/– osteoclasts. To identify the components of the β3 cytoplasmic domain regulating osteoclast function, we generated six point mutants known, in other circumstances, to mediate β integrin signaling. Of the six, only the S752P substitution, which also characterizes a form of the human bleeding disorder Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia, fails to rescue β3–/– osteoclasts or restore ligand-activated signaling in the form of c-src activation. Interestingly, the double mutation Y747F/Y759F, which disrupts platelet function, does not affect the osteoclast. Thus similarities and distinctions exist in the mechanisms by which the β3 integrin regulates platelets and osteoclasts.
Xu Feng, Deborah V. Novack, Roberta Faccio, Daniel S. Ory, Kunihiko Aya, Martin I. Boyer, Kevin P. McHugh, F. Patrick Ross, Steven L. Teitelbaum
We sought to determine whether mice deficient in the proinflammatory caspase-1, which cleaves precursors of IL-1β and IL-18, were protected against ischemic acute renal failure (ARF). Caspase-1–/– mice developed less ischemic ARF as judged by renal function and renal histology. These animals had significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels and a lower morphological tubular necrosis score than did wild-type mice with ischemic ARF. Since caspase-1 activates IL-18, lack of mature IL-18 might protect these caspase-1–/– mice from ARF. In wild-type animals, we found that ARF causes kidney IL-18 levels to more than double and induces the conversion of the IL-18 precursor to the mature form. This conversion is not observed in caspase-1–/– ARF mice or sham-operated controls. We then injected wild-type mice with IL-18–neutralizing antiserum before the ischemic insult and found a similar degree of protection from ARF as seen in caspase-1–/– mice. In addition, we observed a fivefold increase in myeloperoxidase activity in control mice with ARF, but no such increase in caspase-1–/– or IL-18 antiserum–treated mice. Finally, we confirmed histologically that caspase-1–/– mice show decreased neutrophil infiltration, indicating that the deleterious role of IL-18 in ischemic ARF may be due to increased neutrophil infiltration.
Vyacheslav Y. Melnikov, Tevfik Ecder, Giamila Fantuzzi, Britta Siegmund, M. Scott Lucia, Charles A. Dinarello, Robert W. Schrier, Charles L. Edelstein
The Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is characterized by premature fusion of cranial sutures resulting from mutations in Twist, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor. We have identified Twist target genes using human mutant calvaria osteoblastic cells from a child with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome with a Twist mutation that introduces a stop codon upstream of the bHLH domain. We observed that Twist mRNA and protein levels were reduced in mutant cells and that the Twist mutation increased cell growth in mutant osteoblasts compared with control cells. The mutation also caused increased alkaline phosphatase and type I collagen expression independently of cell growth. During in vitro osteogenesis, Twist mutant cells showed increased ability to form alkaline phosphatase-positive bone-like nodular structures associated with increased type I collagen expression. Mutant cells also showed increased collagen synthesis and matrix production when cultured in aggregates, as well as an increased capacity to form a collagenous matrix in vivo when transplanted into nude mice. In contrast, Twist mutant osteoblasts displayed a cell-autonomous reduction of osteocalcin mRNA expression in basal conditions and during osteogenesis. The data show that genetic deletion of Twist causing reduced Twist dosage increases cell growth, collagen expression, and osteogenic capability, but inhibits osteocalcin gene expression. This provides one mechanism that may contribute to the premature cranial ossification induced by deletion of the bHLH Twist domain in Saethre-Chotzen syndrome.
M. Yousfi, F. Lasmoles, A. Lomri, P. Delannoy, P.J. Marie
Rat renal interlobar arteries express heme oxygenase 2 (HO-2) and manufacture carbon monoxide (CO), which is released into the headspace gas. CO release falls to 30% and 54% of control, respectively, after inhibition of HO activity with chromium mesoporphyrin (CrMP) or of HO-2 expression with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (HO-2 AS-ODN). Patch-clamp studies revealed that CrMP decreases the open probability of a tetraethylammonium-sensitive (TEA-sensitive) 105 pS K channel in interlobar artery smooth muscle cells, and that this effect of CrMP is reversed by CO. Assessment of phenylephrine-induced tension development revealed reduction of the EC50 in vessels treated with HO-2 AS-ODN, CrMP, or TEA. Exogenous CO greatly minimized the sensitizing effect on agonist-induced contractions of agents that decrease vascular CO production, but not the sensitizing effect of K channel blockade with TEA. Collectively, these data suggest that vascular CO serves as an inhibitory modulator of vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictors via a mechanism that involves a TEA-sensitive K channel.
Jun-Ichi Kaide, Fan Zhang, Yuan Wei, Houli Jiang, Changhua Yu, WenHui Wang, Michael Balazy, Nader G. Abraham, Alberto Nasjletti
Fractalkine (FKN, CX3CL1) is a membrane-bound CX3C chemokine induced by primary proinflammatory signals in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Here we examined the role of FKN in polarized Th1 or Th2 responses. Proinflammatory signals, including LPS, IL-1, TNF, and CD40 ligand, induced FKN, as did IFN-γ, which had synergistic activity with TNF. IL-4 and IL-13 did not stimulate the expression of FKN and markedly reduced induction by TNF and IFN-γ. TNF alone or combined with IFN-γ also induced release of soluble FKN, which was inhibited by IL-4 and IL-13. In light of this differential regulation of FKN by the master cytokines that control polarized responses, we analyzed the interaction of FKN with natural killer (NK) cells and polarized T-cell populations. NK cells expressed high levels of the FKN receptor CX3CR1 and responded to FKN. CX3CR1 was preferentially expressed in Th1 compared with Th2 cells. Th1 but not Th2 cells responded to FKN. By immunohistochemistry, FKN was expressed on ECs in psoriasis, a Th1-dominated skin disorder, but not in Th2-driven atopic dermatitis. Similarly, ECs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis granulomatous lymphadenitis, but not those in reactive lymph node hyperplasia or in Castelman’s disease, showed immunoreactive FKN. These results indicate that regulated expression of FKN in ECs participates in an amplification circuit of polarized type I responses.
Paolo Fraticelli, Marina Sironi, Giancarlo Bianchi, Daniele D’Ambrosio, Cristina Albanesi, Antonella Stoppacciaro, Marcello Chieppa, Paola Allavena, Luigi Ruco, Giampiero Girolomoni, Francesco Sinigaglia, Annunciata Vecchi, Alberto Mantovani
Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) is hypothesized to stabilize the enzyme, localize LpL in specific capillary beds, and route lipoprotein lipids to the underlying tissues. To test these hypotheses in vivo, we created mice expressing a human LpL minigene (hLpLHBM) carrying a mutated heparin-binding site. Three basic amino acids in the carboxyl terminal region of LpL were mutated, yielding an active enzyme with reduced heparin binding. Mice expressing hLpLHBM accumulated inactive human LpL (hLpL) protein in preheparin blood. hLpLHBM rapidly lost activity during a 37°C incubation, confirming a requirement for heparin binding to stabilize LpL. Nevertheless, expression of hLpLHBM prevented the neonatal demise of LpL knockout mice. On the LpL-deficient background hLpLHBM expression led to defective targeting of lipids to tissues. Compared with mice expressing native hLpL in the muscle, hLpLHBM transgenic mice had increased postprandial FFAs, decreased lipid uptake in muscle tissue, and increased lipid uptake in kidneys. Thus, heparin association is required for LpL stability and normal physiologic functions. These experiments confirm in vivo that association with HSPGs can provide a means to maintain proteins in their stable conformations and to anchor them at sites where their activity is required.
E. Peer Lutz, Martin Merkel, Yuko Kako, Kristan Melford, Herbert Radner, Jan L. Breslow, André Bensadoun, Ira J. Goldberg
We recently reported that insulin and endothelin-1 (ET-1) can stimulate GLUT4 translocation via the heterotrimeric G protein Gαq/11 and through PI3-kinase–mediated pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Because both hormones stimulate glucose transport through a common downstream pathway, we determined whether chronic ET-1 pretreatment would desensitize these cells to acute insulin signaling. We found that ET-1 pretreatment substantially inhibited insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation. Cotreatment with the ETA receptor antagonist BQ 610 prevented these effects, whereas inhibitors of Gαi or Gβγ were without effect. Chronic ET-1 treatment inhibited insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Gαq/11 and IRS-1, as well as their association with PI3-kinase and blocked the activation of PI3-kinase activity and phosphorylation of Akt. In addition, chronic ET-1 treatment caused IRS-1 degradation, which could be blocked by inhibitors of PI3-kinase or p70 S6-kinase. Similarly, expression of a constitutively active Gαq mutant, but not the wild-type Gαq, led to IRS-1 degradation and inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1, suggesting that the ET-1–induced decrease in IRS-1 depends on Gαq/11 and PI3-kinase. Insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of SHC was also reduced in ET-1 treated cells, resulting in inhibition of the MAPK pathway. In conclusion, chronic ET-1 treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes leads to heterologous desensitization of metabolic and mitogenic actions of insulin, most likely through the decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrates IRS-1, SHC, and Gαq/11.
Ken-ichi Ishibashi, Takeshi Imamura, Prem M. Sharma, Jie Huang, Satoshi Ugi, Jerrold M. Olefsky