Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency is associated with a severe defect in thymus-derived (T)-lymphocyte function combined with normal bone marrow-derived (B)-lymphocyte function. To investigate the role of this enzyme deficiency in the resulting immune dysfunction, we measured the levels of ribonucleoside and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in erythrocytes from two unrelated PNP-deficient, T-lymphocyte-deficient patients. Both PNP-deficient patients have abnormally high levels of deoxyguanosine triphosphate (deoxy-GTP) in their erythrocytes (5 and 8 nmol/ml packed erythrocytes). In contrast, normal controls and adenosine deaminase-deficient, immunodeficient patients do not have detectable amounts of deoxyGTP (<0.5 nmol/ml packed erythrocytes). We propose that deoxyguanosine, a substrate of PNP, is the potentially lymphotoxic metabolite in PNP deficiency. The mechanism of toxicity involves phosphorylation of deoxyguanosine to deoxyGTP, which acts as a potent inhibitor of mammalian ribonucleotide reductase.
Amos Cohen, Lorraine J. Gudas, Arthur J. Ammann, Gerard E. J. Staal, David W. Martin Jr.
Somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) has been demonstrated by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in rat serum using an antiserum specific for somatostatin and cross-reacting maximally with the biologically important area on the peptide. The RIA has a sensitivity of 35 pg/ml. SLI dilutes in parallel with synthetic somatostatin standard in the RIA and shows characteristics similar to synthetic somatostatin on Sephadex G-25 (f) gel chromatography eluting largely as a single peak with 1 M acetic acid. Significant regional differences in serum SLI are present. A positive gradient was found in paired samples from aorta (mean±SEM, 0.304±0.024 ng/ml) and portal vein (0.495±0.047 ng/ml) consistent with the known presence of somatostatin in gut and pancreas, and a negative gradient was noted between paired samples from portal vein (0.523±0.076 ng/ml) and hepatic vein (0.290±0.048 ng/ml) indicating hepatic clearance. No significant differences were demonstrated between aorta and confluence of cerebral venous sinuses or between aorta and inferior vena cava (IVC). After intragastric glucose, a significant and marked elevation of portal SLI was observed, maximal at 5 min (0.416±0.137 vs. 1.55±0.30 ng/ml at 5 min). A significant biphasic elevation of portal SLI also occurred after intravenous glucose. After both routes of glucose administration, the patterns of portal SLI followed closely those of portal glucose and insulin. By contrast, IVC SLI failed to reflect these changes.
M. Berelowitz, S. Kronheim, B. Pimstone, B. Shapiro
The turnover and the catabolic fate of the B apoprotein of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-B) was studied in 15 normal and hyperlipidemic subjects using reinjected autologous VLDL labeled with radioiodine. The specific radioactivity-time curve of the B apoprotein in total VLDL (Sf20-400) was multiexponential but conformed to a two-pool model during the first 48 h of catabolism. The flux was highest in several hypertriglyceridemic subjects. The mass of pool A exceeded the intravascular content of VLDL-B by 30% on average, indicating extravascular metabolism of VLDL. The two-pool model might reflect the input of several populations of particles or heterogeneity of catabolic processes or pools. The flux of B apoprotein was also measured in several subclasses of VLDL, in smaller intermediate density lipoproteins, and in low density lipoproteins (LDL). In three subjects the flux was similar in Sf 60-400 and in Sf 12-60 lipoproteins, suggesting that VLDL was catabolized at least to a particle in the density range Sf 12-60. Subsequent catabolism appeared to proceed by two pathways: in normotriglyceridemic subjects, B apoprotein flux in the Sf 20-400 and in Sf 12-20 lipoproteins was similar, whereas in hypertriglyceridemic subjects flux through Sf 12-20 accounted for only part of the VLDL-B flux.
Michael F. Reardon, Noel H. Fidge, Paul J. Nestel
High density lipoprotein was isolated from pooled rat serum and mesenteric lymph of lymph fistula rats. In most experiments, 5,5′-dithionitrobenzoic acid, an inhibitor of the enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, was added during the collection of lymph to prevent modification of the lipid composition of newly secreted lipoproteins. Negative staining electron microscopy of lymph high density lipoprotein revealed discoidal particles (190±3 × 55±1 Å) which tended to form rouleaux, smaller spherical particles were also present. Serum high density lipoprotein contained only spherical particles (diameter 93±4 Å). Lipid analysis showed that lymph high density lipoprotein was enriched in phospholipid and deficient in cholesterol esters when compared to serum high density lipoprotein. The phospholipid to cholesterol esters ratio was greatest in basal lymph high density lipoprotein when compared to fatty lymph and serum high density lipoprotein. From analysis of the lipid compositional data and direct particle measurement by electron microscopy, it could be determined that ≅50% of basal lymph high density lipoprotein and 30% of fatty lymph high density lipoprotein was discoid. Basal lymph high density lipoprotein was enriched in apoA-I and deficient in the arginine-rich peptide, and the apoprotein composition of fatty lymph high density lipoprotein more closely resembled serum. These observations demonstrate that intestinal lymph contains two types of high density lipoprotein particles, a discoid nascent particle deficient in cholesterol ester and rich in apoA-I, and spherical high density lipoprotein derived from plasma. A significant amount of lymph high density lipoprotein appears to be secreted by the intestine.
P. H. R. Green, A. R. Tall, R. M. Glickman
Sulfasalazine (salicylazosulfapyridine), an agent widely used for the treatment of ileitis and colitis, is also a competitive inhibitor of intestinal folate transport (1, 2). The mechanism of action of sulfasalazine remains uncertain. To further explore the mechanism of sulfasalazine action, the interaction of the drug with the folate recognition site was tested with three enzymes: dihydrofolate reductase, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, and serine transhydroxymethylase, each catalyzing a reaction involving a different folate derivative. Each of these enzymes was inhibited by sulfasalazine in the same concentration range as that previously observed to inhibit intestinal folate transport; the kinetic data are consistent with a competitive mode of inhibition. Specificity of inhibition was demonstrated by the finding that the reduction of the pteridine ring of pteroylheptaglutamic acid by dihydrofolate reductase was subject to inhibition, whereas the hydrolysis of the γ-glutamyl peptide side chain by chicken pancreas conjugase was not affected. These results are interpreted to indicate that sulfasalazine interferes with a folate recognition site which is common to these enzymes and to the intestinal transport system. Sulfasalazine, therefore, has certain properties of an antifolate drug.
Jacob Selhub, G. Jeelani Dhar, Irwin H. Rosenberg
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