Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and heritable phenotype frequently accompanied by insomnia, anxiety, and depression. Here, using a reverse phenotyping approach, we report heterozygous coding variations in the core circadian clock gene cryptochrome 1 in 15 unrelated multigenerational families with combined ADHD and insomnia. The variants led to functional alterations in the circadian molecular rhythms, providing a mechanistic link to the behavioral symptoms. One variant, CRY1Δ11 c.1657+3A>C, is present in approximately 1% of Europeans, therefore standing out as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker. We showed by exome sequencing in an independent cohort of patients with combined ADHD and insomnia that 8 of 62 patients and 0 of 369 controls carried CRY1Δ11. Also, we identified a variant, CRY1Δ6 c.825+1G>A, that shows reduced affinity for BMAL1/CLOCK and causes an arrhythmic phenotype. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis revealed that this variant segregated with ADHD and delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) in the affected family. Finally, we found in a phenome-wide association study involving 9438 unrelated adult Europeans that CRY1Δ11 was associated with major depressive disorder, insomnia, and anxiety. These results defined a distinctive group of circadian psychiatric phenotypes that we propose to designate as “circiatric” disorders.
O. Emre Onat, M. Ece Kars, Şeref Gül, Kaya Bilguvar, Yiming Wu, Ayşe Özhan, Cihan Aydın, A. Nazlı Başak, M. Allegra Trusso, Arianna Goracci, Chiara Fallerini, Alessandra Renieri, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Yuval Itan, Cem E. Atbaşoğlu, Meram C. Saka, İ. Halil Kavaklı, Tayfun Özçelik
A common variant in the RAB27A gene in adults was recently found to be associated with the fractional exhaled nitric oxide level, a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. The small GTPase Rab27 is known to regulate intracellular vesicle traffic, although its role in allergic responses is unclear. We demonstrated that exophilin-5, a Rab27-binding protein, was predominantly expressed in both of the major IL-33 producers, lung epithelial cells, and the specialized IL-5 and IL-13 producers in the CD44hiCD62LloCXCR3lo pathogenic Th2 cell population in mice. Exophilin-5 deficiency increased stimulant-dependent damage and IL-33 secretion by lung epithelial cells. Moreover, it enhanced IL-5 and IL-13 production in response to TCR and IL-33 stimulation from a specific subset of pathogenic Th2 cells that expresses a high level of IL-33 receptor, which exacerbated allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma. Mechanistically, exophilin-5 regulates extracellular superoxide release, intracellular ROS production, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity by controlling intracellular trafficking of Nox2-containing vesicles, which seems to prevent the overactivation of pathogenic Th2 cells mediated by IL-33. This is the first report to our knowledge to establish the significance of the Rab27-related protein exophilin-5 in the development of allergic airway inflammation, and provides insights into the pathophysiology of asthma.
Katsuhide Okunishi, Hao Wang, Maho Suzukawa, Ray Ishizaki, Eri Kobayashi, Miho Kihara, Takaya Abe, Jun-ichi Miyazaki, Masafumi Horie, Akira Saito, Hirohisa Saito, Susumu Nakae, Tetsuro Izumi
Microbial ingestion by a macrophage results in the formation of an acidic phagolysosome but the host cell has no information on the pH susceptibility of the ingested organism. This poses a problem for the macrophage and raises the fundamental question of how the phagocytic cell optimizes the acidification process to prevail. We analyzed the dynamical distribution of phagolysosomal pH in murine and human macrophages that had ingested live or dead Cryptococcus neoformans cells, or inert beads. Phagolysosomal acidification produced a range of pH values that approximated normal distributions, but these differed from normality depending on ingested particle type. Analysis of the increments of pH reduction revealed no forbidden ordinal patterns, implying that the phagosomal acidification process was a stochastic dynamical system. Using simulation modeling, we determined that by stochastically acidifying a phagolysosome to a pH within the observed distribution, macrophages sacrificed a small amount of overall fitness to gain the benefit of reduced variation in fitness. Hence, chance in the final phagosomal pH introduces unpredictability to the outcome of the macrophage-microbe, which implies a bet-hedging strategy that benefits the macrophage. While bet hedging is common in biological systems at the organism level, our results show its use at the organelle and cellular level.
Quigly Dragotakes, Kaitlin M. Stouffer, Man Shun Fu, Yehonatan Sella, Christine Youn, Olivia Insun Yoon, Carlos M. De Leon-Rodriguez, Joudeh B. Freij, Aviv Bergman, Arturo Casadevall
Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory skin disease. HS appears to be a primary abnormality in the pilosebaceous-apocrine unit. In this work, we characterized hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) isolated from HS patients and more precisely the outer root sheath cells (ORSCs). We showed that hair follicle cells from HS patients had an increased number of proliferating progenitor cells and lost quiescent stem cells. Remarkably, we also showed that the progression of replication forks was altered in ORSCs from hair follicles of HS patients, leading to activation of the ATR/CHK1 pathway. These alterations were associated with an increased number of micronuclei and with the presence of cytoplasmic ssDNA, leading to the activation of the IFI16/STING pathway and the production of type I IFNs. This mechanistic analysis of the etiology of HS in the HFSC compartment establishes a formal link between genetic predisposition and skin inflammation observed in HS.
Cindy Orvain, Yea-Lih Lin, Francette Jean-Louis, Hakim Hocini, Barbara Hersant, Yamina Bennasser, Nicolas Ortonne, Claire Hotz, Pierre Wolkenstein, Michele Boniotto, Pascaline Tisserand, Cécile Lefebvre, Jean-Daniel Lelièvre, Monsef Benkirane, Philippe Pasero, Yves Lévy, Sophie Hüe
The Warburg effect is a tumor-related phenomenon that could potentially be targeted therapeutically. Here, we showed that glioblastoma (GBM) cultures and patients’ tumors harbored super-enhancers in several genes related to the Warburg effect. By conducting a transcriptome analysis followed by ChIP-Seq coupled with a comprehensive metabolite analysis in GBM models, we found that FDA-approved global (panobinostat, vorinostat) and selective (romidepsin) histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors elicited metabolic reprogramming in concert with disruption of several Warburg effect–related super-enhancers. Extracellular flux and carbon-tracing analyses revealed that HDAC inhibitors blunted glycolysis in a c-Myc–dependent manner and lowered ATP levels. This resulted in the engagement of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) driven by elevated fatty acid oxidation (FAO), rendering GBM cells dependent on these pathways. Mechanistically, interference with HDAC1/-2 elicited a suppression of c-Myc protein levels and a concomitant increase in 2 transcriptional drivers of oxidative metabolism, PGC1α and PPARD, suggesting an inverse relationship. Rescue and ChIP experiments indicated that c-Myc bound to the promoter regions of PGC1α and PPARD to counteract their upregulation driven by HDAC1/-2 inhibition. Finally, we demonstrated that combination treatment with HDAC and FAO inhibitors extended animal survival in patient-derived xenograft model systems in vivo more potently than single treatments in the absence of toxicity.
Trang Thi Thu Nguyen, Yiru Zhang, Enyuan Shang, Chang Shu, Consuelo Torrini, Junfei Zhao, Elena Bianchetti, Angeliki Mela, Nelson Humala, Aayushi Mahajan, Arif O. Harmanci, Zhengdeng Lei, Mark Maienschein-Cline, Catarina M. Quinzii, Mike-Andrew Westhoff, Georg Karpel-Massler, Jeffrey N. Bruce, Peter Canoll, Markus D. Siegelin
Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI), a complication that frequently occurs in hospital settings, is often associated with hemodynamic compromise, sepsis, cardiac surgery, or exposure to nephrotoxins. Here, using a murine renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) model, we show that intercalated cells (ICs) rapidly adopted a proinflammatory phenotype after IRI. Wwe demonstrate that during the early phase of AKI either blockade of the proinflammatory P2Y14 receptor located on the apical membrane of ICs or ablation of the gene encoding the P2Y14 receptor in ICs (a) inhibited IRI-induced increase of chemokine expression in ICs, (b) reduced neutrophil and monocyte renal infiltration, (c) reduced the extent of kidney dysfunction, and (d) attenuated proximal tubule damage. These observations indicate that the P2Y14 receptor participates in the very first inflammatory steps associated with ischemic AKI. In addition, we show that the concentration of the P2Y14 receptor ligand UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) was higher in urine samples from intensive care unit patients who developed AKI compared with patients without AKI. In particular, we observed a strong correlation between UDP-Glc concentration and the development of AKI in cardiac surgery patients. Our study identifies the UDP-Glc/P2Y14 receptor axis as a potential target for the prevention and/or attenuation of ischemic AKI.
Maria Agustina Battistone, Alexandra C. Mendelsohn, Raul German Spallanzani, Andrew S. Allegretti, Rachel N. Liberman, Juliana Sesma, Sahir Kalim, Susan M. Wall, Joseph V. Bonventre, Eduardo R. Lazarowski, Dennis Brown, Sylvie Breton
Unchecked inflammation is a hallmark of inflammatory tissue injury in diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Yet the mechanisms of inflammatory lung injury remain largely unknown. Here we showed that bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cecal ligation and puncture–induced (CLP-induced) polymicrobial sepsis decreased the expression of transcription factor cAMP response element binding (CREB) in lung endothelial cells. We demonstrated that endothelial CREB was crucial for VE-cadherin transcription and the formation of the normal restrictive endothelial adherens junctions. The inflammatory cytokine IL-1β reduced cAMP generation and CREB-mediated transcription of VE-cadherin. Furthermore, endothelial cell–specific deletion of CREB induced lung vascular injury whereas ectopic expression of CREB in the endothelium prevented the injury. We also observed that rolipram, which inhibits type 4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase–mediated (PDE4-mediated) hydrolysis of cAMP, prevented endotoxemia-induced lung vascular injury since it preserved CREB-mediated VE-cadherin expression. These data demonstrate the fundamental role of the endothelial cAMP-CREB axis in promoting lung vascular integrity and suppressing inflammatory injury. Therefore, strategies aimed at enhancing endothelial CREB-mediated VE-cadherin transcription are potentially useful in preventing sepsis-induced lung vascular injury in ARDS.
Shiqin Xiong, Zhigang Hong, Long Shuang Huang, Yoshikazu Tsukasaki, Saroj Nepal, Anke Di, Ming Zhong, Wei Wu, Zhiming Ye, Xiaopei Gao, Gadiparthi N. Rao, Dolly Mehta, Jalees Rehman, Asrar B. Malik
Food allergies are a major clinical problem and are driven by IgE antibodies (Abs) specific for food antigens (Ags). T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells are a specialized subset of FOXP3+ T cells that modulate Ab responses. Here, we analyzed the role of Tfr cells in regulating Ag-specific IgE using a peanut-based food allergy model in mice. Peanut-specific IgE titers and anaphylaxis responses were significantly blunted in Tfr cell–deficient Foxp3-Cre Bcl6fl/fl mice. Loss of Tfr cells led to greatly increased nonspecific IgE levels, showing that Tfr cells have both helper and suppressor functions in IgE production in the germinal center (GC) that work together to facilitate the production of Ag-specific IgE. Foxp3-Cre Ptenfl/fl mice with augmented Tfr cell responses had markedly higher levels of peanut-specific IgE, revealing an active helper function by Tfr cells on Ag-specific IgE. The helper function of Tfr cells for IgE production involves IL-10, and the loss of IL-10 signaling by B cells led to a severely curtailed peanut-specific IgE response, decreased GCB cell survival, and loss of GC dark zone B cells after peanut sensitization. We thus reveal that Tfr cells have an unexpected helper role in promoting food allergy and may represent a target for drug development.
Markus M. Xie, Qiang Chen, Hong Liu, Kai Yang, Byunghee Koh, Hao Wu, Soheila J. Maleki, Barry K. Hurlburt, Joan Cook-Mills, Mark H. Kaplan, Alexander L. Dent
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become an expanding global public health problem. Although the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is an important regulator of glucose metabolism, the relationship between circulating glucocorticoids (GCs) and the features of T2DM remains controversial. Here, we show that 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), an intermediate steroid in the biosynthetic pathway that converts cholesterol to cortisol, binds to and stimulates the transcriptional activity of GR. Hepatic 17-OHP concentrations are increased in diabetic mice and patients due to aberrantly increased expression of Cyp17A1. Systemic administration of 17-OHP or overexpression of Cyp17A1 in the livers of lean mice promoted the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, whereas knockdown of Cyp17A1 abrogated metabolic disorders in obese mice. Therefore, our results identify a Cyp17A1/17-OHP/GR–dependent pathway in the liver that mediates obesity-induced hyperglycemia, suggesting that selectively targeting hepatic Cyp17A1 may provide a therapeutic avenue for treating T2DM.
Yan Lu, E Wang, Ying Chen, Bing Zhou, Jiejie Zhao, Liping Xiang, Yiling Qian, Jingjing Jiang, Lin Zhao, Xuelian Xiong, Zhiqiang Lu, Duojiao Wu, Bin Liu, Jing Yan, Rong Zhang, Huijie Zhang, Cheng Hu, Xiaoying Li
The maternal perinatal environment modulates brain formation, and altered maternal nutrition has been linked to the development of metabolic and psychiatric disorders in the offspring. Here, we showed that maternal high-fat diet (HFD) feeding during lactation in mice elicits long-lasting changes in gene expression in the offspring’s dopaminergic circuitry. This translated into silencing of dopaminergic midbrain neurons, reduced connectivity to their downstream targets, and reduced stimulus-evoked dopamine (DA) release in the striatum. Despite the attenuated activity of DA midbrain neurons, offspring from mothers exposed to HFD feeding exhibited a sexually dimorphic expression of DA-related phenotypes, i.e., hyperlocomotion in males and increased intake of palatable food and sucrose in females. These phenotypes arose from concomitantly increased spontaneous activity of D1 medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and profoundly decreased D2 MSN projections. Overall, we have unraveled a fundamental restructuring of dopaminergic circuitries upon time-restricted altered maternal nutrition to induce persistent behavioral changes in the offspring.
R.N. Lippert, S. Hess, P. Klemm, L.M. Burgeno, T. Jahans-Price, M.E. Walton, P. Kloppenburg, J.C. Brüning
No posts were found with this tag.