Methylglyoxal (MG), a dicarbonyl compound produced by the fragmentation of triose phosphates, forms advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in vitro. Glyoxalase-I catalyzes the conversion of MG to S-D-lactoylglutathione, which in turn is converted to D-lactate by glyoxalase-II. To evaluate directly the effect of glyoxalase-I activity on intracellular AGE formation, GM7373 endothelial cells that stably express human glyoxalase-I were generated. Glyoxalase-I activity in these cells was increased 28-fold compared to neo-transfected control cells (21.80+/-0.1 vs. 0. 76+/-0.02 micromol/min/mg protein, n = 3, P < 0.001). In neo-transfected cells, 30 mM glucose incubation increased MG and D-lactate concentration approximately twofold above 5 MM (35.5+/-5.8 vs. 19.6+/-1.6, P < 0.02, n = 3, and 21.0+/-1.3 vs. 10.0+/-1.2 pmol/ 10(6) cells, n = 3, P < 0.001, respectively). In contrast, in glyoxalase-I-transfected cells, 30 mM glucose incubation did not increase MG concentration at all, while increasing the enzymatic product D-lactate by > 10-fold (18.9+/-3.2 vs. 18.4+/- 5.8, n = 3, P = NS, and 107.1+/-9.0 vs. 9.4+/-0 pmol/10(6) cells, n = 3, P < 0.001, respectively). After exposure to 30 mM glucose, intracellular AGE formation in neo cells was increased 13.6-fold (2.58+/-0.15 vs. 0.19+/-0.03 total absorbance units, n = 3, P < 0.001). Concomitant with increased intracellular AGEs, macromolecular endocytosis by these cells was increased 2.2-fold. Overexpression of glyoxalase-I completely prevented both hyperglycemia-induced AGE formation and increased macromolecular endocytosis.
M Shinohara, P J Thornalley, I Giardino, P Beisswenger, S R Thorpe, J Onorato, M Brownlee
The Editorial Board will only consider comments that are deemed relevant and of interest to readers. The Journal will not post data that have not been subjected to peer review; or a comment that is essentially a reiteration of another comment.