The kinetics of activation of human Factor IX by human Factor XIa was studied by measuring the release of a trichloroacetic acid-soluble tritium-labeled activation peptide from Factor IX by a modification of a method described for bovine Factor IX activation by Zur and Nemerson (Zur, M., and Y. Nemerson, 1980, J. Biol. Chem., 255:5703-5707). Initial rates of trichloroacetic acid-soluble 3H-release were linear over 10-30 min of incubation of Factor IX (88 nM) with CaCl2 (5 mM) and with pure (greater than 98%) Factor XIa (0.06-1.3 nM), which was prepared by incubating human Factor XI with bovine Factor XIIa. Release of 3H preceded the appearance of Factor IXa activity, and the percentage of 3H released remained constant when the mole fraction of 3H-labeled and unlabeled Factor IX was varied and the total Factor IX concentration remained constant. A linear correlation (r greater than 0.98, P less than 0.001) was observed between initial rates of 3H-release and the concentration of Factor XIa, measured by chromogenic assay and by radioimmunoassay and added at a Factor IX:Factor XIa molar ratio of 70-5,600. Kinetic parameters, determined by Lineweaver-Burk analysis, include Km (0.49 microM) of about five- to sixfold higher than the plasma Factor IX concentration, which could therefore regulate the reaction. The catalytic constant (kcat) (7.7/s) is approximately 20-50 times higher than that reported by Zur and Nemerson (Zur, M., and Y. Nemerson, 1980, J. Biol. Chem., 255:5703-5707) for Factor IX activation by Factor VIIa plus tissue factor. Therefore, depending on the relative amounts of Factor XIa and Factor VIIa generated in vivo and other factors which may influence reaction rates, these kinetic parameters provide part of the information required for assessing the relative contributions of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways to Factor IX activation, and suggest that the Factor XIa catalyzed reaction is physiologically significant.
P N Walsh, H Bradford, D Sinha, J R Piperno, G P Tuszynski
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