HIV-1 infection usually leads to systemic chronic inflammation that is associated with gut microbial translocation. The recently defined group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are critical for maintenance of intestinal barrier function; however, it is not clear whether and how HIV-1 infection influences the function of these cells. In this issue of the
Xiaohuan Guo, Yang-Xin Fu
pDCs contribute to HIV-1–induced ILC3 dysfunction and depletion.