Uterine leiomyomas are benign tumors that can cause pain, bleeding, and infertility in some women. Mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) exon 2 variants are associated with uterine leiomyomas; however, the causality of MED12 variants, their genetic mode of action, and their role in genomic instability have not been established. Here, we generated a mouse model that conditionally expresses a Med12 missense variant (c.131G>A) in the uterus and demonstrated that this alteration alone promotes uterine leiomyoma formation and hyperplasia in both WT mice and animals harboring a uterine mesenchymal cell–specific Med12 deletion. Compared with WT animals, expression of Med12 c.131G>A in conditional Med12–KO mice resulted in earlier onset of leiomyoma lesions that were also greater in size. Moreover, leiomyomatous, Med12 c.131G>A variant–expressing uteri developed chromosomal rearrangements. Together, our results show that the common human leiomyoma–associated MED12 variant can cause leiomyomas in mice via a gain of function that drives genomic instability, which is frequently observed in human leiomyomas.


Priya Mittal, Yong-hyun Shin, Svetlana A. Yatsenko, Carlos A. Castro, Urvashi Surti, Aleksandar Rajkovic


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