Sphingolipids make up a family of molecules associated with an array of biological functions, including cell death and migration. Sphingolipids are often altered in cancer, though how these alterations lead to tumor formation and progression is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens and cell lines and determined that ceramide synthase 6 (CERS6) is markedly overexpressed compared with controls. Elevated CERS6 expression was due in part to reduction of microRNA-101 (miR-101) and was associated with increased invasion and poor prognosis. CERS6 knockdown in NSCLC cells altered the ceramide profile, resulting in decreased cell migration and invasion in vitro, and decreased the frequency of RAC1-positive lamellipodia formation while CERS6 overexpression promoted it. In murine models, CERS6 knockdown in transplanted NSCLC cells attenuated lung metastasis. Furthermore, combined treatment with
Motoshi Suzuki, Ke Cao, Seiichi Kato, Yuji Komizu, Naoki Mizutani, Kouji Tanaka, Chinatsu Arima, Mei Chee Tai, Kiyoshi Yanagisawa, Norie Togawa, Takahiro Shiraishi, Noriyasu Usami, Tetsuo Taniguchi, Takayuki Fukui, Kohei Yokoi, Keiko Wakahara, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Yukiko Mizutani, Yasuyuki Igarashi, Jin-ichi Inokuchi, Soichiro Iwaki, Satoshi Fujii, Akira Satou, Yoko Matsumoto, Ryuichi Ueoka, Keiko Tamiya-Koizumi, Takashi Murate, Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Mamoru Kyogashima, Takashi Takahashi
Usage data is cumulative from October 2018 through October 2019.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.