Lack of a preclinical model of primary dystonia that exhibits dystonic-like twisting movements has stymied identification of the cellular and molecular underpinnings of the disease. The classical familial form of primary dystonia is caused by the DYT1 (ΔE) mutation in
Chun-Chi Liang, Lauren M. Tanabe, Stephanie Jou, Frank Chi, William T. Dauer
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