Lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic vessel remodeling are complex biological processes frequently observed during inflammation. Accumulating evidence indicates that inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis (IAL) is not merely an endpoint event, but actually a phenomenon actively involved in the pathophysiology of various inflammatory disorders. The VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 and VEGF-A/VEGF-R2 signaling pathways are two of the best-studied pathways in IAL. Methods targeting these molecules, such as prolymphangiogenic or antilymphatic treatments, were found to be beneficial in various preclinical and/or clinical studies. This Review focuses on the most recent achievements in the fields of lymphatic biology relevant to inflammatory conditions. Additionally, preclinical and clinical therapies that modulate IAL are summarized.
Honsoul Kim, Raghu P. Kataru, Gou Young Koh
Schematic diagram depicting IAL observed during the acute phase of inflammation.