Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) originate in stratified epithelia, with a small subset becoming metastatic. Epithelial stem cells are targets for driver mutations that give rise to SCCs, but it is unknown whether they contribute to oncogenic multipotency and metastasis. We developed a mouse model of SCC by targeting two frequent genetic mutations in human SCCs, oncogene KrasG12D activation and Smad4 deletion, to mouse keratin 15–expressing (K15+) stem cells. We show that transgenic mice developed multilineage tumors, including metastatic SCCs. Among cancer stem cell–enriched (CSC-enriched) populations, those with increased side population (SP) cells correlated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and lung metastasis. We show that microRNA-9 (miR-9) contributed to SP expansion and metastasis, and miR-9 inhibition reduced the number of SP cells and metastasis. Increased miR-9 was detected in metastatic human primary SCCs and SCC metastases, and miR-9–transduced human SCC cells exhibited increased invasion. We identified α-catenin as a predominant miR-9 target. Increased miR-9 in human SCC metastases correlated with α-catenin loss but not E-cadherin loss. Our results demonstrate that stem cells with KrasG12D activation and Smad4 depletion can produce tumors that are multipotent and susceptible to EMT and metastasis. Additionally, tumor initiation and metastatic properties of CSCs can be uncoupled, with miR-9 regulating the expansion of metastatic CSCs.


Ruth A. White, Jill M. Neiman, Anand Reddi, Gangwen Han, Stanca Birlea, Doyel Mitra, Laikuan Dionne, Pam Fernandez, Kazutoshi Murao, Li Bian, Stephen B. Keysar, Nathaniel B. Goldstein, Ningjing Song, Sophia Bornstein, Zheyi Han, Xian Lu, Joshua Wisell, Fulun Li, John Song, Shi-Long Lu, Antonio Jimeno, Dennis R. Roop, Xiao-Jing Wang


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