In Alzheimer disease (AD), amyloid β peptide (Aβ) accumulates in plaques in the brain. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) mediates Aβ-induced perturbations in cerebral vessels, neurons, and microglia in AD. Here, we identified a high-affinity RAGE-specific inhibitor (FPS-ZM1) that blocked Aβ binding to the V domain of RAGE and inhibited Aβ40- and Aβ42-induced cellular stress in RAGE-expressing cells in vitro and in the mouse brain in vivo. FPS-ZM1 was nontoxic to mice and readily crossed the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In aged APPsw/0 mice overexpressing human Aβ-precursor protein, a transgenic mouse model of AD with established Aβ pathology, FPS-ZM1 inhibited RAGE-mediated influx of circulating Aβ40 and Aβ42 into the brain. In brain, FPS-ZM1 bound exclusively to RAGE, which inhibited β-secretase activity and Aβ production and suppressed microglia activation and the neuroinflammatory response. Blockade of RAGE actions at the BBB and in the brain reduced Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels in brain markedly and normalized cognitive performance and cerebral blood flow responses in aged APPsw/0 mice. Our data suggest that FPS-ZM1 is a potent multimodal RAGE blocker that effectively controls progression of Aβ-mediated brain disorder and that it may have the potential to be a disease-modifying agent for AD.
Rashid Deane, Itender Singh, Abhay P. Sagare, Robert D. Bell, Nathan T. Ross, Barbra LaRue, Rachal Love, Sheldon Perry, Nicole Paquette, Richard J. Deane, Meenakshisundaram Thiyagarajan, Troy Zarcone, Gunter Fritz, Alan E. Friedman, Benjamin L. Miller, Berislav V. Zlokovic
Blocking properties, BBB permeability, percentage brain uptake, and toxicity of the lead Aβ/RAGE inhibitors from the primary screen (FPS1, FPS2, and FPS3), and the lead inhibitor from the secondary screen (FPS-ZM1)