NK cells are a major component of the antitumor immune response and are involved in controlling tumor progression and metastases in animal models. Here, we show that dysfunction of these cells accompanies human breast tumor progression. We characterized human peripheral blood NK (p-NK) cells and malignant mammary tumor-infiltrating NK (Ti-NK) cells from patients with noninvasive and invasive breast cancers. NK cells isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy donors and normal breast tissue were used as controls. With disease progression, we found that expression of activating NK cell receptors (such as NKp30, NKG2D, DNAM-1, and CD16) decreased while expression of inhibitory receptors (such as NKG2A) increased and that this correlated with decreased NK cell function, most notably cytotoxicity. Importantly, Ti-NK cells had more pronounced impairment of their cytotoxic potential than p-NK cells. We also identified several stroma-derived factors, including TGF-β1, involved in tumor-induced reduction of normal NK cell function. Our data therefore show that breast tumor progression involves NK cell dysfunction and that breast tumors model their environment to evade NK cell antitumor immunity. This highlights the importance of developing future therapies able to restore NK cell cytotoxicity to limit/prevent tumor escape from antitumor immunity.
Emilie Mamessier, Aude Sylvain, Marie-Laure Thibult, Gilles Houvenaeghel, Jocelyne Jacquemier, Rémy Castellano, Anthony Gonçalves, Pascale André, François Romagné, Gilles Thibault, Patrice Viens, Daniel Birnbaum, François Bertucci, Alessandro Moretta, Daniel Olive
Usage data is cumulative from May 2020 through May 2021.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.