Arterial blood flow enhances glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) binding to vWF, which initiates platelet adhesion to injured vessels. Mutations in the vWF A1 domain that cause type 2B von Willebrand disease (vWD) reduce the flow requirement for adhesion. Here we show that increasing force on GPIbα/vWF bonds first prolonged (“catch”) and then shortened (“slip”) bond lifetimes. Two type 2B vWD A1 domain mutants, R1306Q and R1450E, converted catch bonds to slip bonds by prolonging bond lifetimes at low forces. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of GPIbα dissociating from the A1 domain suggested mechanisms for catch bonds and their conversion by the A1 domain mutations. Catch bonds caused platelets and GPIbα-coated microspheres to roll more slowly on WT vWF and WT A1 domains as flow increased from suboptimal levels, explaining flow-enhanced rolling. Longer bond lifetimes at low forces eliminated the flow requirement for rolling on R1306Q and R1450E mutant A1 domains. Flowing platelets agglutinated with microspheres bearing R1306Q or R1450E mutant A1 domains, but not WT A1 domains. Therefore, catch bonds may prevent vWF multimers from agglutinating platelets. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif–13 (ADAMTS-13) reduced platelet agglutination with microspheres bearing a tridomain A1A2A3 vWF fragment with the R1450E mutation in a shear-dependent manner. We conclude that in type 2B vWD, prolonged lifetimes of vWF bonds with GPIbα on circulating platelets may allow ADAMTS-13 to deplete large vWF multimers, causing bleeding.
Tadayuki Yago, Jizhong Lou, Tao Wu, Jun Yang, Jonathan J. Miner, Leslie Coburn, José A. López, Miguel A. Cruz, Jing-Fei Dong, Larry V. McIntire, Rodger P. McEver, Cheng Zhu
Platelets roll on different vWF site densities with biphasic velocity curves that align with wall shear stress but not with wall shear rate.