Familial tumoral calcinosis is characterized by ectopic calcifications and hyperphosphatemia due to inactivating mutations in FGF23 or UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3). Herein we report a homozygous missense mutation (H193R) in the KLOTHO (KL) gene of a 13-year-old girl who presented with severe tumoral calcinosis with dural and carotid artery calcifications. This patient exhibited defects in mineral ion homeostasis with marked hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia as well as elevated serum levels of parathyroid hormone and FGF23. Mapping of H193R mutation onto the crystal structure of myrosinase, a plant homolog of KL, revealed that this histidine residue was at the base of the deep catalytic cleft and mutation of this histidine to arginine should destabilize the putative glycosidase domain (KL1) of KL, thereby attenuating production of membrane-bound and secreted KL. Indeed, compared with wild-type KL, expression and secretion of H193R KL were markedly reduced in vitro, resulting in diminished ability of FGF23 to signal via its cognate FGF receptors. Taken together, our findings provide what we believe to be the first evidence that loss-of-function mutations in human KL impair FGF23 bioactivity, underscoring the essential role of KL in FGF23-mediated phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis in humans.
Shoji Ichikawa, Erik A. Imel, Mary L. Kreiter, Xijie Yu, Donald S. Mackenzie, Andrea H. Sorenson, Regina Goetz, Moosa Mohammadi, Kenneth E. White, Michael J. Econs
Usage data is cumulative from August 2021 through August 2022.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.