Granulomas represent a localized inflammatory reaction that is characteristically observed in many inflammatory conditions. However, the mechanisms of granuloma formation have not been fully defined. Herein we demonstrate, by using experimental models of intestinal inflammation, that a unique CD11c+ DC-like cell subset that exhibits phenotypic and functional features of immature myeloid DCs and is characterized by the expression of a macrophage marker (F4/80) produces large amounts of IL-23 and directly induces the development of granulomas under a Th1-predominant intestinal inflammatory condition. Importantly, both IL-4 and IgG contribute to the suppression of F4/80+ DC-like cell–mediated granuloma formation by regulating the function and differentiation of this cell subset. In addition, enteric flora is required for the F4/80+ DC-like cell–mediated granuloma formation. Collectively, our data provide what we believe are novel insights into the involvement of F4/80+ DC-like cells in intestinal granuloma formation and demonstrate the role of host (IL-4 and IgG) and environmental (enteric flora) factors that regulate this function.
Atsushi Mizoguchi, Atsushiro Ogawa, Hidetoshi Takedatsu, Ken Sugimoto, Yasuyo Shimomura, Katsunori Shirane, Kiyotaka Nagahama, Takashi Nagaishi, Emiko Mizoguchi, Richard S. Blumberg, Atul K. Bhan
This file is in Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format. If you have not installed and configured the Adobe Acrobat Reader on your system.
PDFs are designed to be printed out and read, but if you prefer to read them online, you may find it easier if you increase the view size to 125%.
Many versions of the free Acrobat Reader do not allow Save. You must instead save the PDF from the JCI Online page you downloaded it from. PC users: Right-click on the Download link and choose the option that says something like "Save Link As...". Mac users should hold the mouse button down on the link to get these same options.