Tissue damage resulting from chemical, mechanical, and biological injury, or from interrupted blood flow and reperfusion, is often life threatening. The subsequent tissue response involves an intricate series of events including inflammation, oxidative stress, immune cell recruitment, and cell survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. In addition, fibrotic repair characterized by myofibroblast transdifferentiation and the deposition of ECM proteins is activated. Failure to initiate, maintain, or stop this repair program has dramatic consequences, such as cell death and associated tissue necrosis or carcinogenesis. In this sense, inflammation and oxidative stress, which are beneficial defense processes, can become harmful if they do not resolve in time. This repair program is largely based on rapid and specific changes in gene expression controlled by transcription factors that sense injury. PPARs are such factors and are activated by lipid mediators produced after wounding. Here we highlight advances in our understanding of PPAR action during tissue repair and discuss the potential for these nuclear receptors as therapeutic targets for tissue injury.
Liliane Michalik, Walter Wahli