Glucagon-like peptide–1 (GLP-1) has a diverse set of peripheral actions which all serve to promote enhanced glucose tolerance, and for this reason it has become the basis for new treatments for type 2 diabetes. In this issue of the JCI, Knauf et al. provide clear evidence that GLP-1 signaling in the CNS is also linked to the control of peripheral glucose homeostasis by inhibiting non–insulin-mediated glucose uptake by muscle and increasing insulin secretion from the pancreas. The authors’ work points to an important need to integrate diverse GLP-1 signaling actions and peripheral GLP-1 function in order to better understand both normal and abnormal glucose homeostasis.
David A. D’Alessio, Darleen A. Sandoval, Randy J. Seeley