Many proinflammatory cytokines, such as leptin, play key roles in dynamic regulation of energy expenditure and food intake. The present work tested a role for the proinflammatory cytokine GM-CSF. Central but not peripheral administration of GM-CSF to adult rats significantly decreased food intake and body weight for at least 48 hours. Similar results were observed following central administration of GM-CSF in mice. GM-CSF receptor immunoreactivity was found on neurons within the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus. GM-CSF–deficient (GM–/–) mice weighed more and had significantly higher total body fat than wild-type (GM+/+) mice. Energy expenditure in GM–/– mice was decreased compared with that in GM+/+ mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that GM-CSF signaling in the CNS can regulate energy homeostasis.
Jacquelyn A. Reed, Deborah J. Clegg, Kathleen Blake Smith, Emeline G. Tolod-Richer, Emily K. Matter, Lara S. Picard, Randy J. Seeley