The forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 has been identified as a negative regulator of insulin/IGF-1 signaling. Its function is inhibited by phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion through a PI3K-dependent pathway. However, the structure/function relationship of FoxO1 has not been elucidated completely. In this study, we carried out mutation analysis of the FoxO1 coactivator–interacting LXXLL motif (amino acids 459–463). Expression of a 3A/LXXAA mutant, in which 3 Akt phosphorylation sites (T24, S253, and S316) and 2 leucine residues in the LXXLL motif (L462 and L463) were replaced by alanine, decreased both Igfbp-1 and G6Pase promoter activity and endogenous Igfbp-1 and G6Pase gene expression in simian virus 40–transformed (SV40-transformed) hepatocytes. Importantly, mutagenesis of the LXXLL motif eliminated FoxO1 interaction with the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide–dependent (NAD-dependent) deacetylase sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), sustained the acetylated state of FoxO1, and made FoxO1 nicotinamide and resveratrol insensitive, supporting a role for this motif in Sirt1 binding. Furthermore, intravenous administration of adenovirus encoding 3A/LXXAA FoxO1 into Leprdb/db mice decreased fasting blood glucose levels and improved glucose tolerance and was accompanied by reduced G6Pase and Igfbp-1 gene expression and increased hepatic glycogen content. In conclusion, the LXXLL motif of FoxO1 may have an important role for its transcriptional activity and Sirt1 binding and should be a target site for regulation of gene expression of FoxO1 target genes and glucose metabolism in vivo.
Jun Nakae, Yongheng Cao, Hiroaki Daitoku, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, Wataru Ogawa, Yoshihiko Yano, Yoshitake Hayashi
Scheme and subcellular localization of FoxO1 mutants in SV40-transformed hepatocytes and expression of an