Numerous signaling pathways have been shown to mediate cardioprotection, but the end effectors that mediate protection are only beginning to be elucidated. Numerous cardioprotective drugs are shown to converge on glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) . The phosphorylation and inhibition of GSK-3β lead to inhibition or delayed activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition, a key regulator of apoptosis.
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