The inward rectifier current IK1 is tightly regulated regionally within the heart, downregulated in heart failure, and genetically suppressed in Andersen syndrome. We used in vivo viral gene transfer to dissect the role of IK1 in cardiac repolarization and maintenance of the resting membrane potential (RMP) in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Kir2.1 overexpression boosted Ba2+-sensitive IK1 by more than 100% (at –50mV), significantly shortened action potential durations (APDs), accelerated phase 3 repolarization, and hyperpolarized RMP compared with control cells (nongreen cells from the same hearts and green cells from GFP-transduced hearts). The dominant-negative Kir2.1AAA reduced IK1 by 50–90%; those cells with less than 80% reduction of IK1 exhibited prolonged APDs, decelerated phase 3 repolarization, and depolarization of the RMP. Further reduction of IK1 resulted in a pacemaker phenotype, as previously described. ECGs revealed a 7.7% ± 0.9% shortening of the heart rate–corrected QT interval (QTc interval) in Kir2.1-transduced animals (n = 4) and a 16.7% ± 1.8% prolongation of the QTc interval (n = 3) in Kir2.1AAA-transduced animals 72 hours after gene delivery compared with immediate postoperative recordings. Thus, IK1 is essential for establishing the distinctive electrical phenotype of the ventricular myocyte: rapid terminal repolarization to a stable and polarized resting potential. Additionally, the long-QT phenotype seen in Andersen syndrome is a direct consequence of dominant-negative suppression of Kir2 channel function.
Junichiro Miake, Eduardo Marbán, H. Bradley Nuss