Effects of cisplatin and TNF-α inhibitors on kidney morphology. Kidneys were removed 72 hours after injection with saline (a), cisplatin (b), or cisplatin and GM6001 (c). (a) Saline-treated kidneys show normal morphology with well-preserved brush border membranes and no loss of tubular epithelial cells. (b) Cisplatin-treated kidneys show extensive loss of tubular epithelial cells, tubular dilation, intratubular debris, and cast formation. (c) Kidneys from cisplatin plus GM6001 mice show relatively normal morphology. Sections were stained with PAS and photographed at ×100 magnification (inset, ×400).