Background Gingivitis and periodontitis are prevalent inflammatory diseases of the periodontal tissues. Current treatments are often ineffective or do not prevent disease recurrence. Uncontrolled complement activation and the resulting chronic gingival inflammation are hallmarks of periodontal diseases. We determined the efficacy and safety of a complement 3–targeted therapeutic, AMY-101, which was locally administered to adult patients with periodontal inflammation.Methods Thirty-two patients with gingival inflammation were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, split-mouth phase IIa trial that followed a dose escalation study to select a safe and effective dose in an additional 8 patients. Half of the patient’s mouth was randomly assigned to AMY-101 (0.1 mg/site) or placebo injections at sites of inflammation, administered on days 0, 7, and 14, and then evaluated for safety and efficacy outcomes on days 28, 60, and 90. The primary efficacy outcome was a change in gingival inflammation, measured by a modified gingival index (MGI), and secondary outcomes included changes in bleeding on probing (BOP), the amount of plaque, pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and gingival crevicular fluid levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) over 90 days.Results A once-weekly intragingival injection of AMY-101 for 3 weeks was safe and well tolerated in all participants and resulted in significant (P < 0.001) reductions in clinical indices measuring gingival inflammation (MGI and BOP). AMY-101 significantly (P < 0.05) reduced MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, indicators of inflammatory tissue destruction. These therapeutic effects persisted for at least 3 months after treatment.Conclusion AMY-101 treatment resulted in a significant and sustainable reduction in gingival inflammation without adverse events and, we believe, merits further investigation for the treatment of periodontitis and other oral or peri-implant inflammatory conditions.Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03694444.Funding Amyndas Pharmaceuticals.
Hatice Hasturk, George Hajishengallis, The Forsyth Institute Center for Clinical and Translational Research staff, John D. Lambris, Dimitrios C. Mastellos, Despina Yancopoulou