Displayed pictorially are the clinical stages of disease resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19). Prior to exposure, preventive strategies may help avoid or abrogate infection. After infection, antivirals may reduce viral replication and resultant complications. If viral replication continues and an inflammatory response develops, immunomodulators could prevent or dampen an exaggerated immune response. If further progression with tissue destruction occurs, cellular therapies could promote tissue repair. Importantly, with novel preventive and therapeutic strategies, recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection could improve at all stages. Figure adapted with permission from BioCentury (https://www.biocentury.com/trial-timeline).