Cancer cells reprogram lipid metabolism during their malignant progression, but limited information is currently available on the involvement of alterations in fatty acid synthesis in cancer development. We herein demonstrate that acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), a rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acid synthesis, plays a critical role in regulating the growth and differentiation of leukemia-initiating cells. The Trib1-COP1 complex is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets C/EBPA, a transcription factor regulating myeloid differentiation, for degradation, and its overexpression specifically induces acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We identified ACC1 as a target of the Trib1-COP1 complex and found that an ACC1 mutant resistant to degradation because of the lack of a Trib1-binding site attenuated complex-driven leukemogenesis. Stable ACC1 protein expression suppressed the growth-promoting activity and increased ROS levels with the consumption of NADPH in a primary bone marrow culture, and delayed the onset of AML with increases in mature myeloid cells in mouse models. ACC1 promoted the terminal differentiation of Trib1-COP1–expressing cells and eradicated leukemia-initiating cells in the early phase of leukemic progression. These results indicate that ACC1 is a natural inhibitor of AML development. The upregulated expression of the ACC1 protein has potential as an effective strategy for cancer therapy.
Hidenori Ito, Ikuko Nakamae, Jun-ya Kato, Noriko Yoneda-Kato