Lumen integrity in vascularization requires fully differentiated endothelial cells (ECs). Here, we report that endothelial-mesenchymal transitions (EndMTs) emerged in ECs of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVMs) and caused disruption of the lumen or lumen disorder. We show that excessive Sry-box 2 (Sox2) signaling was responsible for the EndMTs in cerebral AVMs. EC-specific suppression of Sox2 normalized endothelial differentiation and lumen formation and improved the cerebral AVMs. Epigenetic studies showed that induction of Sox2 altered the cerebral-endothelial transcriptional landscape and identified jumonji domain–containing protein 5 (JMJD5) as a direct target of Sox2. Sox2 interacted with JMJD5 to induce EndMTs in cerebral ECs. Furthermore, we utilized a high-throughput system to identify the β-adrenergic antagonist pronethalol as an inhibitor of Sox2 expression. Treatment with pronethalol stabilized endothelial differentiation and lumen formation, which limited the cerebral AVMs.


Jiayi Yao, Xiuju Wu, Daoqin Zhang, Lumin Wang, Li Zhang, Eric X. Reynolds, Carlos Hernandez, Kristina I. Boström, Yucheng Yao


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