Hedgehog (Hh) proteins regulate development and tissue homeostasis, but their role in atopic dermatitis (AD) remains unknown. We found that on induction of mouse AD, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) expression in skin and Hh pathway action in skin T cells were increased. Shh signaling reduced AD pathology and the levels of Shh expression determined disease severity. Hh-mediated transcription in skin T cells in AD-induced mice increased Treg populations and their suppressive function through increased active transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β) in Treg signaling to skin T effector populations to reduce disease progression and pathology. RNA sequencing of skin CD4+ T cells from AD-induced mice demonstrated that Hh signaling increased expression of immunoregulatory genes and reduced expression of inflammatory and chemokine genes. Addition of recombinant Shh to cultures of naive human CD4+ T cells in iTreg culture conditions increased FOXP3 expression. Our findings establish an important role for Shh upregulation in preventing AD, by increased Gli-driven, Treg cell–mediated immune suppression, paving the way for a potential new therapeutic strategy.
Eleftheria Papaioannou, Diana C. Yánez, Susan Ross, Ching-In Lau, Anisha Solanki, Mira Manilal Chawda, Alex Virasami, Ismael Ranz, Masahiro Ono, Ryan F. L. O’Shaughnessy, Tessa Crompton
Usage data is cumulative from December 2019 through December 2020.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.