Features characteristic to rheumatoid joint destruction, including synovial overgrowth and bone resorption, are experimentally produced by augmenting c-fos gene expression. We tested here if arthritic joint destruction was inhibited upon inactivation of the c-fos/AP-1 signal by administering short double-stranded AP-1 DNA oligonucleotides into mice with collagen-induced arthritis to compete for the binding of AP-1 in vivo at the promoter binding site. Arthritic joint destruction was inhibited in a sequence-specific and dose-dependent manner by oligonucleotides containing the AP-1 sequence. The oligonucleotides inhibited gene expression at the transcriptional level. Nucleotide sequences besides AP-1 also appeared to be important structurally for binding of AP-1 onto DNA and for the stability of oligonucleotides against nucleases. Immunohistochemical chase experiment administering biotinylated oligonucleotides into arthritic mice showed that AP-1 oligonucleotides reached the inflamed joint. Thus, activation of c-fos/AP-1 appears essentially important in arthritic joint destruction.
S Shiozawa, K Shimizu, K Tanaka, K Hino
Usage data is cumulative from June 2022 through June 2023.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.