Mice homozygously deficient for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) receptor (u-PAR-1-) were generated by homologous recombination in D3, embryonic stem cells. The genomic sequences comprising exon 2 through 5 of the u-PAR gene were replaced by the neomycin resistance gene, resulting in inactivation of both u-PAR splice variants. The inactivated u-PAR allele was transmitted via mendelian inheritance, and fertility. Inactivation of u-PAR was confirmed by the absence of binding of rabbit anti-murine u-PAR or of an aminoterminal fragment of murine u-PA (mu-PA.1-48) to u-PAR-1- embryonic fibroblasts and macrophages. u-PAR-1- mice displayed normal lysis of a murine plasma clot injected via the jugular vein. Invasion of macrophages into the peritoneal cavity after thioglycollate stimulation was similar in u-PAR-1- and u-PAR-1- mice. u-PAR-1- peritoneal macrophages had a threefold decreased initial rate of u-PA-mediated plasminogen activation in vitro but degraded extracellular matrix proteins in vitro as efficiently as u-PAR-1- macrophages.
M Dewerchin, A V Nuffelen, G Wallays, A Bouché, L Moons, P Carmeliet, R C Mulligan, D Collen
Usage data is cumulative from June 2021 through June 2022.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.