Our present work characterized the role of hormone-mediated signal transduction pathways in regulating hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis. Cholera toxin, dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP), and glucagon inhibited GSH synthesis in cultured hepatocytes by 25-43%. Cellular cAMP levels exhibited a lower threshold for stimulation of the GSH efflux than inhibition of its synthesis. The effect of DBcAMP was independent of the type of sulfur amino acid precursor and cellular ATP levels and unassociated with increased GSH mixed disulfide formation or altered GSH/oxidized glutathione ratio. In liver cytosols, addition of DBcAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) inhibited GSH synthesis from substrates (cysteine, ATP, glutamate, and glycine) by approximately 20% which was prevented by the A-kinase inhibitor. However, if only substrates of the second step in GSH synthesis were used (gamma-glutamylcysteine, glycine, and ATP), DBcAMP and A-kinase exerted no inhibitory effect. Phenylephrine, vasopressin, and phorbol ester also inhibited GSH synthesis in cultured cells by approximately 20%, and depleted cell GSH independent of the type of sulfur amino acid precursor. Cellular cysteine level was unchanged despite the significant fall in GSH after glucagon or phenylephrine treatment. Pretreatment with either staurosporine, C-kinase inhibitor, or calmidazolium, a calmodulin inhibitor, partially prevented but, together, completely prevented the inhibitory effect of phenylephrine. The same combination had no effect on the inhibitory effect of glucagon. The effects of hormones were confirmed in both the intact perfused liver and after in vivo administration. Thus, two classes of hormones acting through distinct signal transduction pathways may down-regulate hepatic GSH synthesis by phosphorylation of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase.
S C Lu, J Kuhlenkamp, C Garcia-Ruiz, N Kaplowitz
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