We examined the effects of activation of endothelial protein kinase C (PKC) of the endothelial barrier function. Exposure of confluent bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) resulted in concentration-dependent (10(-8)-10(-6) M) increases in PKC activity and in the transendothelial flux of 125I-albumin. Exposure of the endothelium to 1-oleoyl 2-acetyl glycerol (OAG) also increased the transendothelial flux of 125I-albumin in a concentration-dependent manner. Neither 4 alpha-phorbol didecanoate nor 1-mono-oleoyl glycerol, which do not activate PKC, altered permeability. The increase in 125I-albumin permeability induced by PMA was inhibited by 25 microM H7 (a PKC inhibitor), but not by the control compound HA1004 (25 microM). After 16 h of exposure to PMA, 125I-albumin permeability returned to baseline and a significant reduction in cytosolic PKC activity was noted. Further challenge with PMA at this time resulted in no significant increase in PKC activity indicating downregulation of the enzyme; moreover, this PMA challenge did not increase endothelial permeability. Exposure of endothelial monolayers to phospholipase C (PLC), which increases membrane phosphatidylinositide turnover, or to alpha-thrombin also induced concentration-dependent activation of PKC and increases in 125I-albumin endothelial permeability. The thrombin- and PLC-induced permeability increases were inhibited by H7, but not by HA1004. The activation of endothelial PKC directly by PMA or OAG and by PLC and alpha-thrombin increases the transendothelial albumin permeability, indicating that PKC activation is an important signal transduction pathway by which extracellular mediators increase endothelial macromolecular transport.
J J Lynch, T J Ferro, F A Blumenstock, A M Brockenauer, A B Malik
Usage data is cumulative from June 2021 through June 2022.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.