Published August 1, 1985 - More info
Factor XIII is a blood protransglutaminase that is distributed in plasma and platelets. The extracellular and intracellular zymogenic forms differ in that the plasma zymogen contains A and B subunits, while the platelet zymogen has A subunits only. Both zymogens form the same enzyme. Erythrocytes, in contrast, contain a tissue transglutaminase that is distinct from Factor XIII. In this study other bone marrow-derived cells were examined for transglutaminase activity. Criteria that were used to differentiate Factor XIII proteins from erythrocyte transglutaminase included: (a) immunochemical and immunohistochemical identification with monospecific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to Factor XIII proteins, (b) requirement for thrombin cleavage to express activity, (c) pattern of fibrin cross-linking catalyzed by the enzyme, and (d) different electrophoretic mobilities in nondenaturing gel systems. By these criteria human peripheral blood monocytes, peritoneal macrophages, and monocytes maintained in culture contain an intracellular protransglutaminase that is the same as platelet Factor XIII. The monocyte-macrophage protein is thrombin-sensitive, and under appropriate conditions there is no enzyme expression without activation of the zymogen. Both the monocyte-macrophage zymogen and enzyme have the same electrophoretic mobilities as platelet Factor XIII zymogen and enzyme. Antibody to A protein reacts with the monocyte-macrophage protein. B protein is not associated with this intracellular zymogen. By immunoperoxidase staining monocyte-macrophage protein seems to be localized in the cytoplasm, similar to the known cytoplasmic distribution of platelet and megakaryocyte Factor XIII. These procedures were also used to study populations of human granulocytes and lymphocytes, and protransglutaminase activity was not observed in these cells.