The present study examined the effect of various unopsonized strains of influenza A virus on release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and acid phosphatase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). These results were correlated with the effect that these same viruses had on bactericidal activity in PMNL. Several strains of virus inhibited the fusion of azurophil granules with phagosomes containing Staphylococcus aureus. These same strains inhibited the extracellular release of MPO from PMNL (39-59%) and caused depressed killing (42-77%). In contrast, one of the influenza viruses (X-47a) did not inhibit PMNL MPO release or killing. The data indicate a close relationship between the ability of influenza virus to ablate normal intracellular lysosome-phagosome fusion with subsequent depression of bactericidal functions of PMNL.
J S Abramson, J C Lewis, D S Lyles, K A Heller, E L Mills, D A Bass
Usage data is cumulative from December 2021 through December 2022.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.