Cardiovascular actions of insulin were studied by intravenous infusions of insulin (4 and 8 mU/kg per min) in normal conscious dogs. This resulted in increases in cardiac output, heart rate, and left ventricular derivative of pressure with respect to time (dP/dt) and dP/dt/P, as blood glucose was reduced. The inotropic and chronotropic effects of insulin were not related to hypoglycemia, as they persisted even when blood glucose was restored to control values or when it was prevented from falling by a simultaneous infusion of glucose. These cardiac effects were accompanied by increases in plasma catecholamines, and were abolished by propranolol pretreatment. Both plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine increased during insulin hypoglycemia, but only norepinephrine increased during insulin infusion when euglycemia was maintained.
Chang-Seng Liang, John U. Doherty, Robert Faillace, Kishio Maekawa, Stephanie Arnold, Haralambos Gavras, William B. Hood Jr.