The ability of 10 μM epinephrine or isoproterenol to stimulate cyclic AMP accumulation was decreased in hepatocytes isolated from hyperthyroid (triiodothyronine treated) as compared to euthyroid rats. In the presence of methylisobutylxanthine, epinephrine or isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation was ∼65% lower in hyperthyroid as compared with euthyroid rat hepatocytes. The ability of glucagon to stimulate a cyclic AMP response was also decreased in the hyperthyroid state, when assayed in either the absence or presence of a methyl xanthine. The character of the catecholamine-stimulated cyclic AMP response was beta adrenergic in both the hyperand euthyroid states. No evidence for an alpha2 adrenergic mediated component of catecholamine action on cyclic AMP levels was noted. Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity of hepatocyte homogenates was not altered in the hyperthyroid state. Hormone-stimulated, guanine nucleotide- and fluoride-activatable adenylate cyclase activity was reduced in subcellular fractions obtained from hyperthyroid as compared with euthyroid rat hepatocytes. Beta adrenergic receptor binding was reduced ∼35% and glucagon receptor binding reduced ∼50% in the hyperthyroid as compared with euthyroid rat hepatocyte membrane fractions. The status of the regulatory components of adenylate cyclase were examined by in vitro treatment of subcellular fractions with cholera toxin. The ability of cholera toxin to modulate adenylate cyclase was not altered by hyperthyroidism. Cholera toxin catalyzed AD[32P]ribosylation of hyperthyroid and euthyroid rat hepatocyte proteins separated electrophoretically displayed nearly identical autoradiograms. Studies of the reconstitution of adenylate cyclase activity of S49 mouse lymphoma cyc− mutant membranes by detergent extracts from rat hepatocyte membranes, indicated that hyperthyroidism was associated with a reduced capacity of regulatory components to confer fluoride, but not guanine nucleotide activatability to catalytic cyclase. Thyroid hormones regulate the hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase system of rat hepatocytes at several distinct loci of the system.
Craig C. Malbon, Michael L. Greenberg