The relation between myocardial tissue cyclic AMP (cAMP) and the vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation was assessed in the isolated perfused rat heart by measurement of ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) and vulnerable period duration (VP). Exogenous dibutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP) reduced VFT and increased VP by a concentration-related action whereas exogenous cAMP did not. Theophylline (1.0 mmol/liter) increased the tissue content of cAMP by 58% (P < 0.001) and caused a leftward shift in the concentration-response curve to DBcAMP. An effect of cAMP on VFT and VP could be shown in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibition by theophylline. β-1-Adrenergic receptor blockade with atenolol did not alter the concentration-response curve for VFT when DBcAMP was administered. Epinephrine (100 nmol/liter to 1 μmol/liter) also increased vulnerability to VF; this effect was accompanied by a concentration-related increase in tissue cAMP, but inconsistent changes in tissue ATP, phosphocreatine and potassium. The concentration-response curve of VFT to epinephrine was shifted leftward by theophylline and rightward by atenolol.
W. F. Lubbe, Th. Podzuweit, P. S. Daries, L. H. Opie
Usage data is cumulative from November 2021 through November 2022.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.