Sangram S. Sisodia
Rudolph E. Tanzi
The transcription factor insulin promoter factor-1 (IPF-1) plays a central role in both the development of the pancreas and the regulation of insulin gene expression in the mature pancreatic β cell. A dominant-negative frameshift mutation in the IPF-l gene was identified in a single family and shown to cause pancreatic agenesis when homozygous and maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) when heterozygous. We studied the role of IPF-1 in Caucasian diabetic and nondiabetic subjects from the United Kingdom. Three novel IPF-1 missense mutations (C18R, D76N, and R197H) were identified in patients with type 2 diabetes. Functional analyses of these mutations demonstrated decreased binding activity to the human insulin gene promoter and reduced activation of the insulin gene in response to hyperglycemia in the human β-cell line Nes2y. These mutations are present in 1% of the population and predisposed the subject to type 2 diabetes with a relative risk of 3.0. They were not highly penetrant MODY mutations, as there were nondiabetic mutation carriers 25–53 years of age. We conclude that mutations in the IPF-1 gene may predispose to type 2 diabetes and are a rare cause of MODY and pancreatic agenesis, with the phenotype depending upon the severity of the mutation.
Wendy M. Macfarlane, Timothy M. Frayling, Sian Ellard, Julie C. Evans, Lisa I.S. Allen, Michael P. Bulman, Susan Ayres, Maggie Shepherd, Penny Clark, Ann Millward, Andrew Demaine, Terence Wilkin, Kevin Docherty, Andrew T. Hattersley
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common disabling disease with onset in middle-aged individuals, caused by an imbalance between insulin production and action. Genetic studies point to major genetic components, but, with the exception of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), specific diabetes susceptibility genes remain to be identified. Recent studies showed that a dominant negative mutation in the insulin promoter factor-1 (IPF-1), a pancreatic β-cell specific transcription factor, causes pancreatic agenesis and MODY. Thus, we investigated 192 French, non-MODY type 2 diabetic families for mutations in IPF-1. We identified 3 novel IPF-1 mutations, including 2 substitutions (Q59L and D76N) and an in-frame proline insertion (InsCCG243). Functional transactivation assays of these IPF-1 mutant isoforms in a β-pancreatic tumor cell line transfected with a transcriptional reporter and IPF-1 expression plasmids demonstrate a significant inhibition of basal insulin promoter activity (stronger with the InsCCG243 mutant). We find that the InsCCG243 mutation is linked, in 2 families, to an autosomal dominant-like late-onset form of type 2 diabetes, in which insulin secretion becomes progressively impaired. The lower penetrance D76N and Q59L mutations were more prevalent and were associated with a relative risk of 12.6 for diabetes and with decreased glucose-stimulated insulin-secretion in nondiabetic subjects. We propose that IPF-1 mutations can cause MODY or apparently monogenic late-onset diabetes and that they represent a significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes in humans.
El Habib Hani, Doris A. Stoffers, Jean-Claude Chèvre, Emmanuelle Durand, Violeta Stanojevic, Christian Dina, Joel F. Habener, Philippe Froguel
Streptococcal and staphylococcal superantigens (SAg’s) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases, but the mechanisms by which these toxins act are unknown. The present study assessed the ability of nanogram quantities of topically applied purified toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), staphylococcal enterotoxin type B, and streptococcal pyrogenic enterotoxin types A and C to induce inflammatory reactions in clinically uninvolved skin of normal controls and subjects with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and lichen planus. These SAg’s triggered a significantly greater inflammatory skin response in psoriatics than in normal control subjects or in subjects with atopic dermatitis or lichen planus. Surprisingly, skin biopsies did not exhibit the T-cell receptor Vβ stimulatory properties predicted for SAg-induced skin reactions. By 6 hours after patch testing with SAg’s, TNF-α mRNA had increased in the epidermis (but not the dermis) in biopsies from psoriatics, compared with controls. Immunohistochemical studies revealed significantly higher HLA-DR expression in keratinocytes from psoriatics than from controls. However, a mutant TSST-1 protein that fails to bind HLA-DR did not elicit an inflammatory skin reaction. These results indicate that keratinocyte expression of HLA-DR enhances inflammatory skin responses to SAg’s. They may also account for previous studies failing to demonstrate selective expansion of T-cell receptor Vβs in psoriatics colonized with SAg-producing Staphylococcus aureus, and they identify a novel T cell–independent mechanism by which SAg’s contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases.
Jeffrey B. Travers, Qutayba A. Hamid, David A. Norris, Christine Kuhn, Ralph C. Giorno, Patrick M. Schlievert, Evan R. Farmer, Donald Y.M. Leung
The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm involves breakdown of the elastic laminae. Elastolytic cysteine proteases, including cathepsins S and K, are overexpressed at sites of arterial elastin damage, but whether endogenous local inhibitors counterbalance these proteases is unknown. We show here that, whereas cystatin C is normally expressed in vascular wall smooth muscle cells (SMCs), this cysteine protease inhibitor is severely reduced in both atherosclerotic and aneurysmal aortic lesions. Furthermore, increased abdominal aortic diameter among 122 patients screened by ultrasonography correlated inversely with serum cystatin C levels. In vitro, cytokine-stimulated vascular SMCs secrete cathepsins, whose elastolytic activity could be blocked when cystatin C secretion was induced by treatment with TGF-β1. The findings highlight a potentially important role for imbalance between cysteine proteases and cystatin C in arterial wall remodeling and establish that cystatin C deficiency occurs in vascular disease.
Guo-Ping Shi, Galina K. Sukhova, Anders Grubb, Anique Ducharme, Luis H. Rhode, Richard T. Lee, Paul M. Ridker, Peter Libby, Harold A. Chapman
The chemokine SDF-1 plays a central role in the repopulation of the bone marrow (BM) by circulating CD34+ progenitors, but the mechanisms of its action remain obscure. To extravasate to target tissue, a blood-borne cell must arrest firmly on vascular endothelium. Murine hematopoietic progenitors were recently shown in vivo to roll along BM microvessels that display selectins and integrins. We now show that SDF-1 is constitutively expressed by human BM endothelium. In vitro, human CD34+ cells establish efficient rolling on P-selectin, E-selectin, and the CD44 ligand hyaluronic acid under physiological shear flow. ICAM-1 alone did not tether CD34+ cells under flow, but, in the presence of surface-bound SDF-1, CD34+ progenitors rolling on endothelial selectin rapidly developed firm adhesion to the endothelial surface, mediated by an interaction between ICAM-1 and its integrin ligand, which coimmobilized with SDF-1. Human CD34+ cells accumulated efficiently on TNF-activated human umbilical cord endothelial cells in the absence of SDF-1, but they required immobilized SDF-1 to develop firm integrin-mediated adhesion and spreading. In the absence of selectins, SDF-1 also promoted VLA-4–mediated, Gi protein–dependent tethering and firm adhesion to VCAM-1 under shear flow. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that SDF-1 expressed on vascular endothelium is crucial for translating rolling adhesion of CD34+ progenitors into firm adhesion by increasing the adhesiveness of the integrins VLA-4 and LFA-1 to their respective endothelial ligands, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1.
Amnon Peled, Valentin Grabovsky, Liliana Habler, Judith Sandbank, Frenando Arenzana-Seisdedos, Isabelle Petit, Herzl Ben-Hur, Tsvee Lapidot, Ronen Alon
Tissue factor (TF), the cell-surface receptor for coagulation factor VIIa, supports metastasis. Equally important for this process are (a) interactions of the TF cytoplasmic domain, which binds the mobility-enhancing actin-binding protein 280, and (b) the formation of a proteolytically active TF-VIIa complex on the tumor cell surface. In primary bladder carcinoma cells, we find that this complex localizes to the invasive edge, in proximity to tumor-infiltrating vessels that stain intensely for TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI-1), the major inhibitor of the protease activity of the complex. In culture, binding of VIIa to TF-expressing tumor cells is sufficient to allow cell adhesion, migration, and intracellular signaling on immobilized TFPI-1. Immobilized heparin, a mimic for extracellular matrix–associated proteoglycans, binds physiological concentrations of TFPI-1 in a conformation that supports TF-VIIa–dependent cell adhesion. Consistent with a functional role of TFPI-1 in complex extracellular matrices, we show that TF cooperates with integrin-mediated adhesion and migration on composite matrices that contain ligands for both integrins and the TF-VIIa complex. This study thus provides evidence for a novel mechanism of protease-supported migration that is independent of proteolytic matrix degradation but rather involves protease-dependent bridging of TF’s extracellular domain to an ECM-associated inhibitor.
Edgar G. Fischer, Matthias Riewald, Hui-Yu Huang, Yohei Miyagi, Yoshinobu Kubota, Barbara M. Mueller, Wolfram Ruf
Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in the arterial vasodilation and associated vascular hyporesponsiveness to vasoconstrictors observed in liver cirrhosis. Bacteria, potent activators of NO and TNF-α synthesis, are found in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of ascitic cirrhotic rats. Here, we investigated the impact of bacterial translocation (BT) to MLNs on TNF-α production, vascular NO release, and contractility in the mesenteric vasculature of ascitic cirrhotic rats. Vascular response to the α-adrenoagonist methoxamine, which is diminished in the superior mesenteric arterial beds of cirrhotic rats, is further blunted in the presence of BT. BT promoted vascular NO release in cirrhotic rats, an effect that depended on pressure-induced shear stress and was blocked by the NO inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine. Removing the endothelium had the same effect. Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), but not the inducible isoform (iNOS), was present in mesenteric vasculature of cirrhotic rats with and without BT, and its expression was enhanced compared with controls. TNF-α was induced in MLNs by BT and accumulated in parallel in the serum. This TNF-α production was associated with elevated levels of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a TNF-α–stimulated cofactor and enhancer of eNOS-derived NO biosynthesis and NOS activity in mesenteric vasculature. These findings establish a link between BT to MLNs and increased TNF-α production and elevated BH4 levels enhancing eNOS-derived NO overproduction, further impairing contractility in the cirrhotic mesenteric vasculature.
R. Wiest, S. Das, G. Cadelina, G. Garcia-Tsao, S. Milstien, R.J. Groszmann
To elucidate the role of cardiac myosin-binding protein-C (MyBP-C) in myocardial structure and function, we have produced mice expressing altered forms of this sarcomere protein. The engineered mutations encode truncated forms of MyBP-C in which the cardiac myosin heavy chain-binding and titin-binding domain has been replaced with novel amino acid residues. Analogous heterozygous defects in humans cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Mice that are homozygous for the mutated MyBP-C alleles express less than 10% of truncated protein in M-bands of otherwise normal sarcomeres. Homozygous mice bearing mutated MyBP-C alleles are viable but exhibit neonatal onset of a progressive dilated cardiomyopathy with prominent histopathology of myocyte hypertrophy, myofibrillar disarray, fibrosis, and dystrophic calcification. Echocardiography of homozygous mutant mice showed left ventricular dilation and reduced contractile function at birth; myocardial hypertrophy increased as the animals matured. Left-ventricular pressure-volume analyses in adult homozygous mutant mice demonstrated depressed systolic contractility with diastolic dysfunction. These data revise our understanding of the role that MyBP-C plays in myofibrillogenesis during cardiac development and indicate the importance of this protein for long-term sarcomere function and normal cardiac morphology. We also propose that mice bearing homozygous familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy–causing mutations may provide useful tools for predicting the severity of disease that these mutations will cause in humans.
Bradley K. McConnell, Karen A. Jones, Diane Fatkin, Luis H. Arroyo, Richard T. Lee, Orlando Aristizabal, Daniel H. Turnbull, Dimitrios Georgakopoulos, David Kass, Meredith Bond, Hideshi Niimura, Frederick J. Schoen, David Conner, Donald H. Fischman, Christine E. Seidman, J.G. Seidman
We sought to evaluate the ability of an E1–, E3– adenovirus (Ad) vector (AdGVCFTR.10) to transfer the normal human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cDNA to the airway epithelium of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). We administered AdGVCFTR.10 at doses of 3 × 106 to 2 × 109 plaque-forming units over 9 months by endobronchial spray to 7 pairs of individuals with CF. Each 3-month cycle, we measured vector-derived versus endogenous CFTR mRNA in airway epithelial cells prior to therapy, as well as 3 and 30 days after therapy. The data demonstrate that (a) this strategy appears to be safe; (b) after the first administration, vector-derived CFTR cDNA expression in the CF airway epithelium is dose-dependent, with greater than 5% endogenous CFTR mRNA levels at the higher vector doses; (c) expression is transient, lasting less than 30 days; (d) expression can be achieved with a second administration, but only at intermediate doses, and no expression is observed with the third administration; and (e) the progressive lack of expression with repetitive administration does not closely correlate with induction of systemic anti-Ad neutralizing antibodies. The major advantage of an Ad vector is that it can deliver sufficient levels of CFTR cDNA to the airway epithelium so that CFTR expression protects the lungs from the respiratory manifestations of CF. However, this impressive level of expression is linked to the challenging fact that expression is limited in time. Although this can be initially overcome by repetitive administration, unknown mechanisms eventually limit this strategy, and further repetitive administration does not lead to repetitive expression.
Ben-Gary Harvey, Philip L. Leopold, Neil R. Hackett, Tina M. Grasso, P. Mickey Williams, Ayly L. Tucker, Robert J. Kaner, Barbara Ferris, Igor Gonda, Theresa D. Sweeney, Ramachandran Ramalingam, Imre Kovesdi, Steven Shak, Ronald G. Crystal
Physical exercise promotes glucose uptake into skeletal muscle and makes the working muscles more sensitive to insulin. To understand the role of insulin receptor (IR) signaling in these responses, we studied the effects of exercise and insulin on skeletal muscle glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in mice lacking insulin receptors specifically in muscle. Muscle-specific insulin receptor knockout (MIRKO) mice had normal resting 2-deoxy-glucose (2DG) uptake in soleus muscles but had no significant response to insulin. Despite this, MIRKO mice displayed normal exercise-stimulated 2DG uptake and a normal synergistic activation of muscle 2DG uptake with the combination of exercise plus insulin. Glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity in resting muscle were normal in MIRKO mice, and exercise, but not insulin, increased glycogen synthase activity. Insulin, exercise, and the combination of exercise plus insulin did not increase IR tyrosine phosphorylation or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in MIRKO muscle. In contrast, insulin alone produced a small activation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 in MIRKO mice, and prior exercise markedly enhanced this insulin effect. In conclusion, normal expression of muscle insulin receptors is not needed for the exercise-mediated increase in glucose uptake and glycogen synthase activity in vivo. The synergistic activation of glucose transport with exercise plus insulin is retained in MIRKO mice, suggesting a phenomenon mediated by nonmuscle cells or by downstream signaling events.
Jørgen F.P. Wojtaszewski, Yasuki Higaki, Michael F. Hirshman, M. Dodson Michael, Scott D. Dufresne, C. Ronald Kahn, Laurie J. Goodyear
Mothers of children with neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) and heart block, as well as patients with Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) and systemic lupus erythematosus, have serum autoantibodies that recognize SS-A/Ro autoantigens including the 60-kDa ribonucleoprotein. By yeast 2-hybrid screening, we identified a novel 75-kDa protein (pp75) that interacts with the carboxyl 70% of 60-kDa SS-A/Ro. The specificity of interaction was confirmed using mammalian 2-hybrid and chemical crosslinking studies. Immunoprecipitation with radiolabeled HeLa cell extracts showed that pp75 was phosphorylated and associated with 2 other phosphoproteins of 64 kDa. In Northern blot analysis, pp75 was expressed in all tissues analyzed; the highest expression was in the human heart. Based on immunofluorescence of transfected HeLa cells, pp75 is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm, an observation confirmed by immunohistochemistry in untransfected cells. Based on Western blot and ELISA assays, sera from 14 of 84 mothers of children with NLE recognized pp75, including 1 mother in whom anti–SS-A/Ro antibodies were not detected. In addition, sera from 5 of 80 patients with SS were positive for anti-pp75 antibody. Identification of molecular partners is a first step toward elucidating the functions and possible involvement in pathogenesis of long-recognized autoantigens such as 60-kDa SS-A/Ro, which are at present poorly understood.
Dunrui Wang, Jill P. Buyon, Weiguo Zhu, Edward K.L. Chan
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that stimulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis through JAK-STAT activation. We show here that LIF-induced JAK2 and STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation is transient, disappearing within 20 and 40 minutes, respectively. LIF activates the SH2 domain–containing tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1, with maximal stimulation observed at 30 minutes. SHP-1 is constitutively associated with JAK2, and LIF induces recruitment of phosphorylated STAT3 to this complex. Overexpression of wild-type or dominant negative forms of SHP-1 shows decreased or increased LIF-induced proopiomelanocortin (POMC) promoter activity, respectively. LIF-induced JAK2 and STAT3 dephosphorylation is delayed until after 60 minutes in cells that overexpress the mutant SHP-1. In addition, SOCS-3, a negative regulator of LIF signaling, binds to JAK2 after 60 minutes of LIF stimulation, after which the complex is degraded by the proteasome. SOCS-3 overexpression blocks LIF-induced JAK2 tyrosine phosphorylation, confirming a role for SOCS-3 in deactivating JAK2 by direct association. Using SOCS-3 fusion proteins, we also define regions of the SOCS-3 protein that are critical for inhibition of LIF-induced POMC promoter activity. Corticotrophic signaling by LIF is thus subject to 2 forms of negative autoregulation: dephosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 by the SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase, and SOCS-3–dependent inactivation of JAK2.
Corinne Bousquet, Christiane Susini, Shlomo Melmed
The mucosal administration of the native antigen or peptide fragments corresponding to immunodominant regions is effective in preventing or treating several T cell–dependent models of autoimmune disease. No data are yet available on oral tolerance with immunodominant T-cell peptides in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), an animal model of B cell–dependent disease. We report that oral administration of the T-cell epitope α146-162 of the Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (TAChR) α-subunit suppressed T-cell responses to AChR and ameliorated the disease in C57Bl/6 (B6) mice. Protection from EAMG was associated with reduced serum Ab’s to mouse AChR and reduced AChR loss in muscle. The effect of Tα146-162 feeding was specific; treatment with a control peptide did not affect EAMG manifestations. The protective effect induced by peptide Tα146-162 was mediated by reduced production of IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-10 by TAChR-reactive cells, suggesting T-cell anergy. TGF-β–secreting Th3 cells did not seem to be involved in tolerance induction. We therefore demonstrate that feeding a single immunodominant epitope can prevent an Ab-mediated experimental model of autoimmune disease.
Fulvio Baggi, Francesca Andreetta, Elisabetta Caspani, Monica Milani, Renato Longhi, Renato Mantegazza, Ferdinando Cornelio, Carlo Antozzi
αβ or γδ thymocytes whose T-cell receptors (TCRs) recognize endogenously expressed antigens (Ag) are autospecific and, thus, potentially self-reactive. In the thymus, such T cells are eliminated during T-cell development through a process known as negative selection. As a model of negative selection of γδ T cells, we have used G8 γδ–T cell transgenic mice, which express a γδ TCR that recognizes the nonpolymorphic MHC class I TLb molecule. Here, we demonstrate that negative selection of autospecific γδ T cells is almost complete in the adult thymus but is markedly attenuated in the neonatal thymus. A consequence of this attenuated negative selection is that potentially self-reactive γδ thymocytes are allowed to escape negative selection, undergo extrathymic differentiation, and find sanctuary in the intestinal epithelium. Interestingly, the ability of these potentially self-reactive γδ T cells to find sanctuary requires both the intestinal epithelial environment and the extrathymic presence of the self-Ag. The implications of these findings on the development and persistence of autoreactive T cells in autoimmune disease are discussed.
Tesu Lin, Hiroki Yoshida, Goro Matsuzaki, Sarah R. Guehler, Kikuo Nomoto, Terrence A. Barrett, Douglas R. Green
The clinical severity of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) correlates closely with the appearance of pulmonary markers of inflammation. Therefore, a model system was developed whereby physiological studies could be performed on live mice to determine the extent to which pulmonary inflammation contributes to respiratory impairment during PCP. P. carinii–infected severe combined immunodeficient mice displayed little evidence of pulmonary inflammation and exhibited normal oxygenation and dynamic lung compliance. When comparably infected littermates were immunologically reconstituted, however, an intense immune-mediated inflammatory response was observed that resulted in significant decreases in both lung compliance and oxygenation. As the pneumonia resolved pulmonary function returned toward normal. To begin to define the cell populations contributing to inflammation-associated respiratory impairment during PCP, similar studies were performed in CD4+ T cell–depleted mice. Mice depleted of both CD4+ and CD8+ cells developed infection, but they demonstrated neither abnormal lung compliance nor increased respiratory rate and displayed no markers of lung injury. In contrast, mice depleted of only CD4+ T cells exhibited severe pulmonary inflammation and injury, decreased oxygenation and lung compliance, and increased respirations. Respiratory compromise was associated with the presence of activated CD8+ cells and neutrophils in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid. These observations provide direct experimental evidence that the host’s response to P. carinii directly impairs pulmonary function and contributes to the pathogenesis of PCP. Furthermore, CD8+ T cells likely contribute to the respiratory compromise observed during PCP.
Terry W. Wright, Francis Gigliotti, Jacob N. Finkelstein, John T. McBride, Chun Li An, Allen G. Harmsen