Advances made during the last 35 years have improved our understanding of the mechanisms of steroid hormone action on bone and how physiologic, pathologic, or iatrogenic changes in hormone levels can lead to increased fracture risk. Estrogens, androgens, and glucocorticoids alter the cellular composition of bone by regulating the supply and lifespan of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Additionally, they influence the survival of osteocytes, long-lived cells that are entombed within the mineralized matrix and mediate the homeostatic adaptation of bone to mechanical forces. Altered redox balance is a proximal underlying mechanism of some of these effects, and sex steroid deficiency or glucocorticoid excess contributes to the aging of the skeleton.
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