Thyroid hormone is a well-known regulator of metabolic and cardiovascular functions, and signaling through thyroid receptors has differential effects on cells depending on the receptor isoform that they express. In this issue of the JCI, Mittag et al. provide evidence that thyroid hormone receptors are essential for the formation of a population of parvalbuminergic neurons in the anterior hypothalamus, linking, for the first time, impaired thyroid hormone signaling during development to cellular deficits in the hypothalamus. Since this newly discovered cell group is predicted to play a role in regulating cardiovascular function, these findings suggest that developmental hypothyroidism may be the cause of cardiovascular disorders later in life.
Douglas Forrest, Jürgen Wess
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