A schematic representation of the subcellular localization of AKAPs. The localization of PKA to different cellular compartments is mediated through interactions with AKAPs. A selection of AKAPs, the signaling molecules that they bind, and their subcellular location are depicted here. The targeting of mAKAP to the perinuclear membrane is a recent observation from our lab. See text and ref. 1 for details on targeting of the remaining AKAPs pictured here. AKAPs, A-kinase anchoring proteins.