Alarmins are endogenous molecules that are constitutively available and released upon tissue damage and activate the immune system. Current evidence indicates that uncontrolled and excessive release of alarmins contributes to the dysregulated processes seen in many inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, as well as tumorigenesis and cancer spread. Conversely, alarmins have also been found to play a major role in the orchestration of tissue homeostasis, including repair and remodeling in the heart, skin, and nervous system. Here, we provide an update and overview on alarmins, highlighting the areas that may benefit from this clinical translation.
James K. Chan, Johannes Roth, Joost J. Oppenheim, Kevin J. Tracey, Thomas Vogl, Marc Feldmann, Nicole Horwood, Jagdeep Nanchahal
Usage data is cumulative from July 2020 through July 2021.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.