The 2 cardinal cell populations mediating adaptive immunity are T and B lymphocytes. These cells play important but poorly understood roles in the immunopathological demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and in a widely used animal model of human MS known as EAE. In the current issue of the JCI, 2 research teams report their parallel studies of double-transgenic mice expressing T and B cell receptors that recognize the same myelin protein (see the related articles beginning on pages 2385 and 2393). More than half of the double-transgenic mice spontaneously developed autoimmune demyelination in their spinal cords and optic nerves, exhibiting pathologies reminiscent of human MS. The studies describe an important new model for MS research.
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