Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial molecular signatures and can initiate innate immune responses against invading pathogens. A new study reports how TLR2 expression by endothelia is locally upregulated by the action of activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils via an unprecedented mechanism involving cell-cell interaction and NAD(P)H oxidase. The report reveals yet another way in which the primordial innate immune system is remarkably complex.


Eicke Latz, Douglas T. Golenbock


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