With almost 2 million new HIV-1 infections in 2018, a highly effective vaccine is imperative. Vaccine-elicited HIV-1 antibodies contribute to protection through multiple nonneutralizing activities, but the exact mechanisms remain unknown. In this issue of the JCI, Neidich and associates sought to determine how antibodies contributed to reducing the risk of HIV-1 acquisition in a phase IIb preventative vaccine efficacy trial, HVTN 505. Their studies revealed that antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) and FcγRIIa binding were strongly associated with reduced HIV-1 risk; however, HIV-1 envelope–specific IgG3, IgA; and host FcγRIIa genotype also influenced risk. This study highlights the intricate interactions between antibodies and innate immune functions in humans.
Tysheena P. Charles, Cynthia A. Derdeyn