Jay W. Heinecke
Louis J. Picker
Gur P. Kaushal, Sudhir V. Shah
Kenneth R. Chien
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) represents a protein family possessing both metalloproteinase and disintegrin domains. ADAMTS-1, an ADAM family member cloned from cachexigenic colon adenocarcinoma, is unusual in that it contains thrombospondin type I motifs and anchors to the extracellular matrix. To elucidate the biological role of ADAMTS-1, we developed ADAMTS-1–null mice by gene targeting. Targeted disruption of the mouse ADAMTS-1 gene resulted in growth retardation with adipose tissue malformation. Impaired female fertilization accompanied by histological changes in the uterus and ovaries also resulted. Furthermore, ADAMTS-1–/– mice demonstrated enlarged renal calices with fibrotic changes from the ureteropelvic junction through the ureter, and abnormal adrenal medullary architecture without capillary formation. ADAMTS-1 thus appears necessary for normal growth, fertility, and organ morphology and function. Moreover, the resemblance of the renal phenotype to human ureteropelvic junction obstruction may provide a clue to the pathogenesis of this common congenital disease.
Takayuki Shindo, Hiroki Kurihara, Kouji Kuno, Hitoshi Yokoyama, Takashi Wada, Yukiko Kurihara, Tomihiko Imai, Yuhui Wang, Masafumi Ogata, Hiroaki Nishimatsu, Nobuo Moriyama, Yoshio Oh-hashi, Hiroyuki Morita, Takatoshi Ishikawa, Ryozo Nagai, Yoshio Yazaki, Kouji Matsushima
Using affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analysis, we have identified cubilin, a 460-kDa receptor heavily expressed in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells, as an albumin binding protein. Dogs with a functional defect in cubilin excrete large amounts of albumin in combination with virtually abolished proximal tubule reabsorption, showing the critical role for cubilin in the uptake of albumin by the proximal tubule. Also, by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry we show that previously identified low–molecular-weight renal albumin binding proteins are fragments of cubilin. In addition, we find that mice lacking the endocytic receptor megalin show altered urinary excretion, and reduced tubular reabsorption, of albumin. Because cubilin has been shown to colocalize and interact with megalin, we propose a mechanism of albumin reabsorption mediated by both of these proteins. This process may prove important for understanding interstitial renal inflammation and fibrosis caused by proximal tubule uptake of an increased load of filtered albumin.
Henrik Birn, John C. Fyfe, Christian Jacobsen, Francoise Mounier, Pierre J. Verroust, Hans Ørskov, Thomas E. Willnow, Søren K. Moestrup, Erik I. Christensen
Previous work has indicated that complement is a mediator of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. To investigate the components of complement responsible for this effect, we examined a model of renal I/R injury in C3-, C4-, C5-, and C6-deficient mice. We occluded the renal arteries and veins (40–58 minutes) and, after reperfusion (0–72 hours), assessed renal structural and functional injury. C3-, C5-, and C6-deficient mice were protected from renal I/R injury, whereas C4-deficient mice were not protected. C6-deficient mice treated with antibody to block C5a generation showed no additional protection from I/R injury. Reconstitution with C6 alone restored the I/R injury in C6-deficient mice. Tubular epithelial cells were the main structures damaged by complement-mediated attack, and, in contrast, the renal vessels were spared. Neutrophil infiltration and myeloperoxidase activity were reduced in C-deficient mouse kidney, but by a similar extent in C3-deficient and C6-deficient mice. We conclude that the membrane attack complex of complement (in which C5 and C6 participate) may account for the effect of complement on mouse renal I/R injury. Neither C5a-mediated neutrophil infiltration nor the classic pathway, in which C4 participates, appears to contribute to I/R injury in this model. By contrast with other organs, such as the heart, the primary effect of complement in the ischemic area is on the parenchymal cell rather than the vascular endothelial cell. The membrane attack complex of complement is a potential target for prevention of I/R injury in this model.
Wuding Zhou, Conrad A. Farrar, Katsushige Abe, Julian R. Pratt, James E. Marsh, Yi Wang, Gregory L. Stahl, Steven H. Sacks
Endothelin-converting enzyme-1 and -2 (ECE-1 and -2) are membrane-bound metalloproteases that can cleave biologically the inactive endothelin-1 (ET-1) precursor to form active ET-1 in vitro. We previously reported developmental defects in specific subsets of neural crest–derived tissues, including branchial arch–derived craniofacial structures, aortic arch arteries, and the cardiac outflow tract in ECE-1 knockout mice. To examine the role of ECE-2 in cardiovascular development, we have now generated a null mutation in ECE-2 by homologous recombination. ECE-2 null mice develop normally, are healthy into adulthood, are fertile in both sexes, and live a normal life span. However, when they are bred into an ECE-1–null background, defects in cardiac outflow structures become more severe than those in ECE-1 single knockout embryos. In addition, ECE-1–/–; ECE-2–/– double null embryos exhibited abnormal atrioventricular valve formation, a phenotype never seen in ECE-1 single knockout embryos. In the developing mouse heart, ECE-2 mRNA is expressed in the endocardial cushion mesenchyme from embyronic day (E) 12.5, in contrast to the endocardial expression of ECE-1. Levels of mature ET-1 and ET-2 in whole ECE-1–/–; ECE-2–/– embryos at E12.5 do not differ appreciably from those of ECE-1–/– embryos. The significant residual ET-1/ET-2 in the ECE-1–/–; ECE-2–/– embryos indicates that proteases distinct from ECE-1 and ECE-2 can carry out ET-1 activation in vivo.
Hiromi Yanagisawa, Robert E. Hammer, James A. Richardson, Noriaki Emoto, S. Clay Williams, Shin-ichi Takeda, David E. Clouthier, Masashi Yanagisawa
Dendritic cells (DCs) are powerful antigen-presenting cells that function as the principal activators of T cells. Since the human CC chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein 3α (MIP-3α), is chemotactic for DCs in vitro, we hypothesized that adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of MIP-3α (ΑdMIP-3α) to tumors might induce local accumulation of DCs and inhibit growth of preexisting tumors. AdMIP-3α directed expression of mRNA and protein in vitro, and the supernatant of A549 cells infected with AdMIP-3α was chemotactic for DCs. In vivo, injection of AdMIP-3α into subcutaneous tumors resulted in local expression of the MIP-3α cDNA and in the local accumulation of DCs. In four syngeneic tumor models, growth of established tumors was significantly inhibited compared with untreated tumors or tumors injected with control vector, and in all but the poorly immunogenic LLC carcinoma model, this treatment increased survival advantage of the preexisting tumors. In all four tumor models, intratumoral injection of AdMIP-3α induced the local accumulation of CD8b.2+ cells and elicited tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity, and adoptive transfer of splenocytes of animals receiving this treatment protected against a subsequent challenge with the identical tumor cells. In wild-type but not in CD8-deficient mice, AdMIP-3α inhibited the growth of tumors. Finally, AdMIP-3α also inhibited the growth of distant tumors. This strategy may be useful for enlisting the help of DCs to boost anti-tumor immunity against local and metastatic tumors without the necessity of ex vivo isolation and manipulation of DCs.
Toshiaki Fushimi, Akira Kojima, Malcolm A.S. Moore, Ronald G. Crystal
Hypertrophic growth is an adaptive response of the heart to diverse pathological stimuli and is characterized by cardiomyocyte enlargement, sarcomere assembly, and activation of a fetal program of cardiac gene expression. A variety of Ca2+-dependent signal transduction pathways have been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy, but whether these pathways are independent or interdependent and whether there is specificity among them are unclear. Previously, we showed that activation of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin or its target transcription factor NFAT3 was sufficient to evoke myocardial hypertrophy in vivo. Here, we show that activated Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases-I and -IV (CaMKI and CaMKIV) also induce hypertrophic responses in cardiomyocytes in vitro and that CaMKIV overexpressing mice develop cardiac hypertrophy with increased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and decreased fractional shortening. Crossing this transgenic line with mice expressing a constitutively activated form of NFAT3 revealed synergy between these signaling pathways. We further show that CaMKIV activates the transcription factor MEF2 through a posttranslational mechanism in the hypertrophic heart in vivo. Activated calcineurin is a less efficient activator of MEF2-dependent transcription, suggesting that the calcineurin/NFAT and CaMK/MEF2 pathways act in parallel. These findings identify MEF2 as a downstream target for CaMK signaling in the hypertrophic heart and suggest that the CaMK and calcineurin pathways preferentially target different transcription factors to induce cardiac hypertrophy.
Robert Passier, Hong Zeng, Norbert Frey, Francisco J. Naya, Rebekka L. Nicol, Timothy A. McKinsey, Paul Overbeek, James A. Richardson, Stephen R. Grant, Eric N. Olson
We have tracked the in vivo migration and have identified in vivo correlates of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity in HIV-seropositive subjects infused with autologous gene-marked CD8+ HIV-specific CTL. The number of circulating gene-marked CTL ranged from 1.6 to 3.5% shortly after infusion to less than 0.5% 2 weeks later. Gene-marked CTL were present in the lymph node at 4.5- to 11-fold excess and colocalized within parafollicular regions of the lymph node adjacent to cells expressing HIV tat fusion transcripts, a correlate of virus replication. The CTL clones expressed the CCR5 receptor and localized among HIV-infected cells expressing the ligands MIP-1α and MIP-1β, CC-chemokines produced at sites of virus replication. Aggregates of apoptotic cells and cells expressing granzyme-B localized within these same sites. In contrast, lymph node sections from untreated HIV-seropositive subjects, all with significant viral burden (> 50,000 HIV RNA copies/mL plasma), showed no CC-chemokine expression and exhibited only sporadic and randomly distributed cells expressing granzymes and/or apoptotic cells. These studies show that the infused CTL specifically migrate to sites of HIV replication and retain their antigen-specific cytolytic potential. Moreover, these studies provide a methodology that will facilitate studies of both the magnitude and functional phenotype of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells in vivo.
Scott J. Brodie, Bruce K. Patterson, Deborah A. Lewinsohn, Kurt Diem, David Spach, Phillip D. Greenberg, Stanley R. Riddell, Lawrence Corey
Current hypotheses describing the function of normal airway surface liquid (ASL) in lung defense are divergent. One theory predicts that normal airways regulate ASL volume by modulating the flow of isosmotic fluid across the epithelium, whereas an alternative theory predicts that ASL is normally hyposmotic. These hypotheses predict different values for the osmotic water permeability (Pf) of airway epithelia. We measured Pf of cultures of normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia that, like the native tissue, contain columnar cells facing the lumen and basal cells that face a basement membrane. Xz laser scanning confocal microscopy recorded changes in epithelial height and transepithelial volume flow in response to anisosmotic challenges. With luminal hyperosmotic challenges, transepithelial and apical membrane Pf are relatively high for both normal and CF airway epithelia, consistent with an isosmotic ASL. Simultaneous measurements of epithelial cell volume and transepithelial water flow revealed that airway columnar epithelial cells behave as osmometers whose volume is controlled by luminal osmolality. Basal cell volume did not change in these experiments. When the serosal side of the epithelium was challenged with hyperosmotic solutions, the basal cells shrank, whereas the lumen-facing columnar cells did not. We conclude that (a) normal and CF airway epithelia have relatively high water permeabilities, consistent with the isosmotic ASL theory, and the capacity to restore water on airway surfaces lost by evaporation, and (b) the columnar cell basolateral membrane and tight junctions limit transepithelial water flow in this tissue.
Hirotoshi Matsui, C. William Davis, Robert Tarran, Richard C. Boucher
Complete IFN-γ receptor ligand-binding chain (IFNγR1) deficiency is a life-threatening autosomal recessive immune disorder. Affected children invariably die of mycobacterial infection, unless bone marrow transplantation is undertaken. Pathogenic IFNGR1 mutations identified to date include nonsense and splice mutations and frameshift deletions and insertions. All result in a premature stop codon upstream from the segment encoding the transmembrane domain, precluding cell surface expression of the receptors. We report herein two sporadic and two familial cases of a novel form of complete IFNγR1 deficiency in which normal numbers of receptors are detected at the cell surface. Two in-frame deletions and two missense IFNGR1 mutations were identified in the segment encoding the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the receptor. Eight independent IFNγR1-specific mAb’s, including seven blocking antibodies, gave recognition patterns that differed between patients, suggesting that different epitopes were altered by the mutations. No specific binding of 125I–IFN-γ to cells was observed in any patient, however, and the cells failed to respond to IFN-γ. The mutations therefore cause complete IFNγR1 deficiency by disrupting the IFN-γ–binding site without affecting surface expression. The detection of surface IFNγR1 molecules by specific antibodies, including blocking antibodies, does not exclude a diagnosis of complete IFNγR1 deficiency.
Emmanuelle Jouanguy, Stéphanie Dupuis, Annaïck Pallier, Rainer Döffinger, Marie-Claude Fondanèche, Claire Fieschi, Salma Lamhamedi-Cherradi, Frédéric Altare, Jean-François Emile, Patrick Lutz, Pierre Bordigoni, Haluk Cokugras, Necla Akcakaya, Judith Landman-Parker, Jean Donnadieu, Yildiz Camcioglu, Jean-Laurent Casanova
Insulin resistance is commonly observed both in overt diabetes and in individuals prone to, but not yet manifesting, diabetes. Hence the maintenance or restoration of insulin sensitivity may prevent the onset of this disease. We previously showed that homozygous disruption of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) in mice resulted in insulin resistance but not diabetes. Here, we have explored the mechanism of systemic insulin resistance in these mice and used adenovirus-mediated gene therapy to restore their insulin sensitivity. Mice expressing the IRS-1transgene showed almost normal insulin sensitivity. Expression of an IRS-1 mutant (IRS-1Δp85) lacking the binding site for the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) also restored insulin sensitivity, although PI3K is known to play a crucial role in insulin’s metabolic responses. Protein kinase B (PKB) activity in liver was decreased in null mice compared with the wild-type and the null mice expressing IRS-1 or IRS-1Δp85. In primary hepatocytes isolated from null mice, expression of IRS-1 enhanced both PI3K and PKB activities, but expression of IRS-1Δp85 enhanced only PKB. These data suggest that PKB in liver plays a pivotal role in systemic glucose homeostasis and that PKB activation might be sufficient for reducing insulin resistance even without full activation of PI3K.
Kohjiro Ueki, Toshimasa Yamauchi, Hiroyuki Tamemoto, Kazuyuki Tobe, Ritsuko Yamamoto-Honda, Yasushi Kaburagi, Yasuo Akanuma, Yoshio Yazaki, Sininchi Aizawa, Ryozo Nagai, Takashi Kadowaki
MHC molecules bind antigenic peptides and present them to T cells. There is a growing body of evidence that MHC molecules also serve other functions. We and others have described synthetic peptides derived from regions of MHC molecules that inhibit T-cell proliferation or cytotoxicity in an allele-nonspecific manner that is independent of interaction with the T-cell receptor. In this report, we describe the mechanism of action of a synthetic MHC class II–derived peptide that blocks T-cell activation induced by IL-2. Both this peptide, corresponding to residues 65–79 of DQA*03011 (DQ 65-79), and rapamycin inhibit p70 S6 kinase activity, but only DQ 65-79 blocks Akt kinase activity, placing the effects of DQ 65-79 upstream of mTOR, a PI kinase family member. DQ 65-79, but not rapamycin, inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity in vitro. The peptide is taken up by cells, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. These findings indicate that DQ 65-79 acts as an antagonist with PI 3-kinase, repressing downstream signaling events and inhibiting proliferation. Understanding the mechanism of action of immunomodulatory peptides may provide new insights into T-cell activation and allow the development of novel immunosuppressive agents.
Michelle L. Boytim, Pamela Lilly, Katerina Drouvalakis, Shu-Chen Lyu, Ron Jung, Alan M. Krensky, Carol Clayberger
Eosinophils promote tissue injury and contribute to the pathogenesis of allergen-triggered diseases like asthma, but the chemical basis of damage to eosinophil targets is unknown. We now demonstrate that eosinophil activation in vivo results in oxidative damage of proteins through bromination of tyrosine residues, a heretofore unrecognized pathway for covalent modification of biologic targets in human tissues. Mass spectrometric studies demonstrated that 3-bromotyrosine serves as a specific “molecular fingerprint” for proteins modified through the eosinophil peroxidase-H2O2 system in the presence of plasma levels of halides. We applied a localized allergen challenge to model the effects of eosinophils and brominating oxidants in human lung injury. Endobronchial biopsy specimens from allergen-challenged lung segments of asthmatic, but not healthy control, subjects demonstrated significant enrichments in eosinophils and eosinophil peroxidase. Baseline levels of 3-bromotyrosine in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proteins from mildly allergic asthmatic individuals were modestly but not statistically significantly elevated over those in control subjects. After exposure to segmental allergen challenge, lung segments of asthmatics, but not healthy control subjects, exhibited a >10-fold increase in BAL 3-bromotyrosine content, but only two- to threefold increases in 3-chlorotyrosine, a specific oxidation product formed by neutrophil- and monocyte-derived myeloperoxidase. These results identify reactive brominating species produced by eosinophils as a distinct class of oxidants formed in vivo. They also reveal eosinophil peroxidase as a potential therapeutic target for allergen-triggered inflammatory tissue injury in humans.
Weijia Wu, Michael K. Samoszuk, Suzy A.A. Comhair, Mary Jane Thomassen, Carol F. Farver, Raed A. Dweik, Mani S. Kavuru, Serpil C. Erzurum, Stanley L. Hazen
Transgenic mice expressing the BV8S2 chain, which is specific for the myelin basic protein determinant Ac1-11, possess a naturally induced set of regulatory T cells directed against BV8S2. Further activation of anti-BV8S2 T cells in male mice with recombinant BV8S2 protein can inhibit IFN-γ release by Ac1-11–specific T cells through a cytokine-driven mechanism and prevent induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In contrast, naive female mice possess fewer anti-BV8S2–reactive T cells, and treatment with BV8S2 delayed but did not prevent EAE. We here demonstrate that combining T-cell receptor (TCR) vaccination with supplemental estrus doses of estrogen potentiated IL-10 production by anti-BV8S2–reactive T cells and induced Ac1-11–specific T cells to produce IL-10 and TGF-β. This combined treatment resulted in full protection against EAE, which was not observed with either therapy alone. These findings imply that supplemental estrogen can enhance the efficacy of TCR-based immunotherapy for autoimmune diseases that predominate in females.
Halina Offner, Kirsten Adlard, Alex Zamora, Arthur A. Vandenbark
To examine the role of cyclooxygenase (COX) isozymes in prostaglandin formation and oxidant stress in inflammation, we administered to volunteer subjects placebo or bolus injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which caused a dose-dependent increase in temperature, heart rate, and plasma cortisol. LPS caused also dose-dependent elevations in urinary excretion of 2,3-dinor 6-keto PGF1α (PGI-M) and 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 (Tx-M). Platelet COX-1 inhibition by chronic administration of low-dose aspirin before LPS did not alter the symptomatic and febrile responses to LPS, but the increment in urinary PGI-M and Tx-M were both partially depressed. Pretreatment with ibuprofen, a nonspecific COX inhibitor, attenuated the febrile and systemic response to LPS and inhibited prostanoid biosynthesis. Both celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, and ibuprofen attenuated the pyrexial, but not the chronotropic, response to LPS. Experimental endotoxemia caused differential expression of the COX isozymes in monocytes and polymorphonuclear leucocytes ex vivo. LPS also increased urinary iPF2α-III, iPF2α-VI, and 8,12-iso-iPF2α-VI, isoprostane (iP) indices of lipid peroxidation, and none of the drugs blunted this response. These studies indicate that (a) although COX-2 predominates, both COX isozymes are induced and contribute to the prostaglandin response to LPS in humans; (b) COX activation contributes undetectably to lipid peroxidation induced by LPS; and (c) COX-2, but not COX-1, contributes to the constitutional response to LPS in humans.
B.F. McAdam, I.A. Mardini, A. Habib, A. Burke, J.A. Lawson, S. Kapoor, G.A. FitzGerald
Eugene A. Podrez, Maria Febbraio, Nader Sheibani, David Schmitt, Roy L. Silverstein, David P. Hajjar, Peter A. Cohen, William A. Frazier, Henry F. Hoff, Stanley L. Hazen