The urinary bladder of the winter flounder absorbs NaCl by a process independent of the transepithelial voltage. In contrast to most other epithelia which have a neutral NaCl-absorptive system, the flounder bladder has a high transepithelial resistance. This feature simplifies analysis of the cellular transport system because the rate of ion transfer through the paracellular pathway is rather low. Experiments were designed to distinguish among three possible mechanisms of neutral NaCl absorption: (a) Na/K/2Cl cotransport; (b) parallel Na/H and Cl/OH exchange; (c) and simple NaCl cotransport. A clear interdependency of Na and Cl for net absorption was demonstrated. NaCl absorption was not dependent on mucosal K and was minimally sensitive to loop diuretics. Thus a Na/K/2Cl transport system was unlikely. The mechanism was not parallel exchange as evidenced by insensitivity to amiloride and to 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonic stilbene, an inhibitor of anion exchange. In addition, inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase had no effect. Net absorption was almost completely abolished by hydrochlorothiazide (0.1 mM). Its action was rapid, reversible, and effective only from the mucosal surface. Metolazone, a structurally dissimilar diuretic in the benzothiadiazide class had qualitatively similar actions. The mechanism of NaCl absorption in this tissue appears to be a simple interdependent process. Its inhibition by thiazide diuretics appears to be a unique feature. The flounder bladder may be a model for NaCl absorption in the distal renal tubule.
We have examined the amino acid transport in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and compared it with the amino acid transport in isolated B lymphocytes from human blood and tonsils. L-system transport was measured with 2-amino-2-carboxy-bicyclo (2,2,1)-heptane, which is a synthetic amino acid whose transport is limited to the L-system. Amino acid uptake was subjected to a multicomponent analysis that partitioned the total uptake into the saturable carrier-mediated transport system and the uptake by diffusion. The maximal velocity of L-system transport in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, 81 mumol/1 cell water per min, was less than 10% that of blood B lymphocytes, which was 1,029 mumol/1 cell water per min. The uptake of 2-amino-2-carboxy-bicyclo (2,2,1)-heptane by tonsillar B cells, by a B lymphocyte cell line, and by blood T-lymphocytes was also 10-fold greater than that observed in chronic lymphocytic leukemic cells. Similarly, the L-system uptake of leucine and phenylalanine, which are naturally occurring amino acids usually transported primarily by the L-system, was reduced in chronic lymphocytic leukemic B cells to 15 and 10% of normal B cells, respectively. Total leucine uptake by chronic lymphocytic leukemic cells, however, was sustained at 30% of that expected because of transport via an alternative transport system. The A- or ASC-systems, the other major amino acid transport pathways, were not defective in chronic lymphocytic leukemic cells. These data indicate that there is a specific, profound decrease in L-system carrier-mediated amino acid transport in chronic lymphocytic leukemic B cells, as judged by the system-specific synthetic amino acid, 2-amino-2-carboxy-bicyclo (2,2,1)-heptane. This defect was confirmed by studies with two naturally occurring L-system amino acids, leucine and phenylalanine. This specific abnormality of membrane transport by chronic lymphocytic leukemic B lymphocytes is not shared by other B lymphocyte types, and thus appears to be related to the neoplastic nature of the leukemic B cells rather than to their immunologic subtype.
In an attempt to identify B cell specific antigens, we have generated a mouse monoclonal antibody, R2D6, which is directed against plasma membranes of rat pancreatic B cells but against no other pancreatic cells. R2D6 crossreacted with mouse and guinea pig B cells, but not with human or dog. The B cell specificity of R2D6 was utilized in fluorescence-activated cell sorting to prepare highly enriched separate populations of viable pancreatic islet B cells and A cells. R2D6 also recognized adrenal chromaffin cells, secretory cells in the anterior pituitary, and the myenteric plexus of the gastrointestinal tract. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, papain, ficin, and pronase had no effect on R2D6-binding to dissociated rat islet cells. However, neuraminidase treatment of intact cells reduced R2D6-binding by 75%. The antigen recognized by R2D6, Ag(R2D6), could be quantitatively extracted from rat islets by dichloromethane/methanol (2:1) and, after drying, was soluble in methanol alone as well as in phosphate-buffered saline. When the dichloromethane/methanol extract (DME) was bound to polyvinylchloride microtiter plates, antigenic activity was retained and remained insensitive to pronase. In this solvent-extracted form, antigenic activity was totally destroyed by neuraminidase. Therefore, sialic acid is either an integral part of, or is related sterically to the binding site (epitope) for R2D6. In high performance thin-layer chromatographs of the DME, developed in 60:40:9 chloroform/methanol/2.5 N ammonia, Ag(R2D6) migrated with a relative mobility (Rf) of 0.54 +/- 0.07 (n = 3), which was a position nearly coincident with the purified brain ganglioside, GD1a. The antigen bound to DEAE-Sephacel, was not inactivated by mild treatment with base (which hydrolyzes phospholipids) and eluted in ganglioside fractions upon C18 Sep-Pak and upon silicic acid chromatography. Hence, the solubility characteristics, enzyme sensitivities, and behavior of Ag(R2D6) in four chromatography systems are consistent with its identification as a ganglioside.
The Bio-Breeding/Worcester (BB/W) rat develops spontaneous autoimmune diabetes similar to human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Transfusions of whole blood from the nondiabetic W-line of BB/W rats prevent the syndrome in diabetes-prone recipients. We report three experiments designed to determine which blood component is protective. In all experiments, diabetes-prone BB/W rats 23 to 35 d of age were given four or six weekly intravenous injections. In the first experiment, animals received either saline or transfusions of erythrocytes, white blood cells, or plasma from W-line donors. Diabetes occurred in 7/22 (32%) erythrocyte, 2/27 (7%) white cell, 14/24 (58%) plasma, and 15/27 (56%) saline recipients (P less than 0.001). At 120 d of age, peripheral blood was obtained from nondiabetic rats. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis of OX 19 tagged leucocytes revealed 35% T lymphocytes in white cell recipients (n = 13), compared with 9% in saline recipients (n = 7; P less than 0.001). Responsiveness to concanavalin A was also increased in the white cell group, whereas the frequency of both insulitis and thyroiditis was decreased. In the second experiment, 1/19 (5%) rats transfused with W-line spleen cells developed diabetes, as contrasted with 12/18 (67%) recipients of diabetes-prone spleen cells and 19/31 (61%) noninjected controls (P less than 0.001). In the third experiment, diabetes-prone rats received either W-line blood treated with a cytotoxic anti-T lymphocyte antibody plus complement, untreated blood, or saline. Diabetes occurred in 8/20 (40%), 1/20 (5%), and 13/19 (68%) rats in each group, respectively (P less than 0.001). We conclude that transfusions of W-line T lymphocytes prevent diabetes in the BB/W rat.
We have tested the participation of endogenous opiate pathways in the negative feedback actions of gonadal steroids on pulsatile properties of luteinizing (LH) hormone release in normal men. To this end, sex steroid hormones were infused intravenously at dosages that under steady state conditions selectively suppressed either the frequency or the amplitude of the pulsatile LH signal. The properties of pulsatile LH secretion were assessed quantitatively by computerized analysis of LH series derived from serial blood sampling over 12 h of observation. When the pure (nonaromatizable) androgen, 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, was infused continuously for 108 h at the blood production rate of testosterone, we were able to achieve selective inhibition of LH pulse frequency akin to that observed in experimental animals after low-dosage androgen replacement. Under these conditions, serum concentrations of testosterone and estradiol-17 beta did not change significantly, but serum 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone concentrations increased approximately two- to threefold, with a corresponding increase in levels of its major metabolite, 5 alpha-androstan-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol. In separate experiments, the infusion of estradiol-17 beta at its blood production rate over a 4.5-d interval selectively suppressed LH pulse amplitude without influencing LH pulse frequency. Estrogen infusion increased serum estradiol-17 beta levels approximately twofold without significantly altering blood androgen concentrations. We then used these schedules of selective androgen or estrogen infusion to investigate the participation of endogenous opiates in the individual inhibitory feedback actions of pure androgen or estrogen on pulsatile LH release by administering a potent and specific opiate-receptor antagonist, naltrexone, during the infusions. Our observations indicate that, despite the continuous infusion of a dosage of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone that significantly suppresses LH pulse frequency, co-administration of an opiate-receptor antagonist effectively reinstates LH pulse frequency to control levels. Moreover, during the infusion of a suppressive dose of estradiol-17 beta, opiate receptor blockade significantly augments LH pulse frequency and increases LH peak amplitude to control levels. Thus, the present studies in normal men demonstrate for the first time that the selective inhibitory action of a pure androgen on LH pulse frequency is effectively antagonized by opiate-receptor blockade. This pivotal observation indicates that opiatergic and androgen-dependent mechanisms specifically and coordinately control the hypothalamic pulse generator for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Cell lines were established from the peripheral blood of two patients with adult T cell leukemia. In contrast to our previous experience, where all such lines expressed T cell markers, these two cell lines expressed B cell antigens and Ig light chains (kappa on CF-2, lambda on HS). Human T cell lymphoma proviral (HTLV) sequences were demonstrated in both cell lines. Since only a portion of the cells in culture expressed Ig light chains, experiments were carried out to exclude the possibility that the cultures were not a mixture of B and T or non-B cells. Cells that expressed kappa- or lambda-light chains were separated by cell sorting from kappa- or lambda-negative cells and replaced in culture. Light chain negative cells reexpressed light chains after time in culture. After 5-azacytidine treatment of the cell lines, all cells expressed Ig light chains. These studies show that the human retrovirus HTLV, which has been demonstrated to be associated with certain T cell malignancies, can infect B cells or B cell precursors.
The studies reported here were designed to determine if there is an apical-basolateral asymmetry to the release of prostaglandins by or to the biochemical effects of prostaglandins on the renal collecting tubule. Canine cortical collecting tubule (CCCT) cells were isolated by immunodissection and seeded at supraconfluent densities on Millipore filters. The resulting confluent monolayer of CCCT cells: (a) developed and maintained a transcellular potential difference of 1 mV (apical side negative); (b) exhibited a permeability to inulin that was the same as that obtained with similar monolayers of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells; and (c) released adenosine 3',5'-cyclicmonophosphate (cAMP) in response to arginine vasopressin (AVP) added to the basolateral but not the apical surface of the monolayer. These results indicate that confluent monolayers of CCCT cells on Millipore filters have characteristics of asymmetry that are seen with intact collecting tubules. Moreover, PGE2 added to either side of the CCCT cell monolayer crossed the monolayer at the same slow rate as inulin, which demonstrated the feasibility of examining the sidedness of the effects of and the release of PGE2. Although AVP caused cAMP release only when added to the basolateral side of CCCT cells, AVP caused the release of PGE2 when added to either the apical or basolateral surface. This result implies that there are at least two AVP receptor systems, one coupled to cAMP synthesis and one to PGE2 formation. In contrast to the results observed with AVP, bradykinin caused PGE2 release only when added to the apical surface of CCCT cells, which suggested that urinary but not blood borne kinins elicit PGE2 formation by the canine collecting tubule. PGE2 was released in comparable amounts on each side of the monolayer in response both to AVP and to bradykinin. High concentrations (greater than or equal to 10(-8) M) of PGE2 added to either side of the monolayer caused the release of cAMP. However, at concentrations (10(-10) - 10(-12) M) at which PGE2 had no independent effect on cAMP release, PGE2 inhibited the release of cAMP, which normally occurred in response to AVP. This inhibition occurred with PGE2 added to either the apical or basolateral surface of the CCCT cell monolayer. PGE2 (10(-11) M) also inhibited the AVP-induced accumulation of intracellular cAMP by CCCT cells seeded on culture dishes. This inhibition was only observed when the cells were preincubated with PGE2 for greater than or equal to 20 min. Our results are consistent with the concept that inhibiton by prostaglandins of the hydroosmotic effect of AVP is due to inhibition of AVP-induced cAMP production. This inhibition does not appear to involve a direct physical interaction of PGE2 with the AVP receptor which is coupled to adenylate cyclase, since CCCT cells must be preincubated with PGE2 for 20 min for the inhibition to be observed, and since PGE2 added to the apical surface of CCCT cells inhibits cAMP release in response to AVP acting from the basolateral surface.
We examined the effect of bovine aortic endothelial cell culture supernatants upon the generation of procoagulant activity by human blood monocytes. Confluent endothelial monolayers were cultured for up to 96 h. At timed intervals, culture supernatants were collected and incubated for 5 h with lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The procoagulant activity of mononuclear cell lysates was determined in a one-stage clotting assay. In five experiments, procoagulant activity with culture supernatant (time 0) was 2,294 +/- 761 U/ml (mean +/- SEM). Culture supernatants from endothelial cells incubated for 24-96 h strongly inhibited mononuclear cell generation of procoagulant activity. Indomethacin (10 microM) added to endothelial cells delayed the appearance of procoagulant inhibitor for 72 h. Bovine aortic smooth muscle cell culture supernatants did not inhibit procoagulant activity. The inhibitor was heat stable, effective at 1:50 dilution, soluble, and acid sensitive, with a molecular weight of less than 1,500. Further studies on subpopulations of mononuclear cells demonstrated that endothelial inhibitor selectively decreased the generation of monocyte procoagulant activity and interfered with T lymphocyte amplification of monocyte production of procoagulant activity. Thus, we have demonstrated that endothelial cells elaborate a potent inhibitor of monocyte procoagulant activity.
The highly polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oils lower the plasma triglyceride concentration. We have studied the effect of a diet rich in fish oil on the rate of production of the triglyceride-transporting very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). Seven subjects, five normal and two with hypertriglyceridemia received up to 30% of daily energy needs from a fish oil preparation that was rich in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, omega-3 fatty acids with five and six double bonds, respectively. Compared with a diet similarly enriched with safflower oil (in which the predominant fatty acid is the omega-6 linoleic acid, with two double bonds), the fish oil diet lowered VLDL lipids and B apoprotein concentrations profoundly. High density lipoprotein lipids and A1 apoprotein were also lowered, but the effect on low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration was inconsistent. The daily production or flux of VLDL apoprotein B, calculated from reinjected autologous 125I-labeled lipoprotein, was substantially less in six subjects studied after 3 wk of fish oil, compared with after safflower oil. This effect on flux was more consistent than that on the irreversible fractional removal rate, which was increased in the four normolipidemic but inconsistent in the hypertriglyceridemic subjects. This suggests that fish oil reduced primarily the production of VLDL. The daily production of VLDL triglyceride, calculated from the kinetics of the triglyceride specific radioactivity-time curves after [3H]glycerol was injected, also showed very substantial reductions in five subjects studied. The marked suppression in VLDL apoprotein B and VLDL triglyceride formation was found not to be due to diminished plasma total free fatty acid or plasma eicosapentaenoic flux, calculated during constant infusions of [14C]eicosapentaenoic acid and [3H]oleic acid in four subjects. In two subjects there was presumptive evidence for substantial independent influx of LDL during the fish oil diet, based on the precursor-product relationship between the intermediate density lipoprotein and LDL apoprotein B specific radioactivity-time curves.
Escherichia coli (strain RDEC-1) adheres to M cells of rabbit Peyer's patch lymphoid follicle epithelium. The RDEC-1 strain contains an 85 X 10(6) D plasmid that codes for pili, which, when purified, adhere to gut absorptive epithelium. This study compared the in vivo lymphoid follicle adherence of the RDEC-1 strain with that of a Shigella flexneri (ShD15) that contained the 85 X 10(6) D plasmid and expressed the RDEC-1 pili, a control E. coli, and a control S. flexneri (ShD12). The bacteria were given in a dose of 10(10) to 0.7-1.1 kg rabbits. The rabbits were sacrificed at 2, 4, 6, and 12 h postinoculation. Peyer's patch tissue was examined by electronmicroscopy and direct fluorescence microscopy. The piliated ShD15 and RDEC-1 bacteria adhered in large numbers at 2 and 4 h postinoculation, but only the RDEC-1 strain persisted and increased in numbers past that time. Control strains did not adhere. The ShD15 strain adhered to and was rapidly taken into M cells, precipitating an acute inflammatory reaction within the follicle and adjacent lumen. Initial lymphoid follicle M cell adherence of the ShD15 strain was associated with the possession of the adherence pilus plasmid. The failure of the ShD15 strain to survive and colonize the lymph follicle epithelium contrasts with the success of the RDEC-1 strain and indicates that the RDEC-1 strain possesses virulence factors in addition to pili.
Administration of human pancreatic tumor growth hormone (GH) releasing factor (hpGRF[1-40]) as a single injection to normal human subjects stimulates the secretion of GH in a dose-responsive manner. In the present studies, hpGRF(1-40) was infused in a graded stepwise manner over a 6-h period in order to determine whether the GH secretory response would be sustained. Normal adult males received four consecutive 90-min infusions of hpGRF(1-40) at doses of 1, 3.3, 10, and 33 ng/kg per min, preceded and followed by a 90-min saline infusion; and the plasma GH responses were compared with those during a separate control infusion. Plasma GH levels were significantly elevated by each hpGRF(1-40) infusion; and dose responsiveness was evident for the lowest three doses. Mean integrated GH secretory rates for the four doses were 1.95, 3.29, 4.29, and 3.65 times those of the respective control study. Plasma GH responses exhibited considerable variability, frequently decreasing during the latter part of each infusion; and at the highest dose, they decreased continuously beginning shortly after the onset of infusion. Episodic GH secretion occurred in individual subjects during each of the infusion periods. The possible contribution of hypothalamic somatostatin secretion to the diminished GH responsiveness was evaluated by determining plasma thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels during the infusions and the TSH responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (500 micrograms i.v.) during a separate hpGRF(1-40) infusion of 2 ng/kg per min. Neither basal nor stimulated TSH levels differed between GRF-infused and control groups. The results indicate that GH secretion is dose responsive to hpGRF(1-40) infusions, though the response to hpGRF(1-40) infusions, though the response is complex. The absence of impaired TSH secretion provides evidence against a mediating role of somatostatin. The explanation for the loss of GH responsiveness remains undetermined but could include GRF-induced receptor down-regulation, a postreceptor effect, or, in spite of our negative results, a somatostatin-mediated inhibition.
Amyloid fibril protein in patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy is known to be chemically related to transthyretin (TTR), the plasma protein that is usually referred to as prealbumin. A genetically abnormal TTR may be involved in this disease. Studies were conducted on amyloid fibril protein (AFp) isolated from tissues of two Portuguese patients who died with familial amyloidosis, and on TTR isolated from sera of patients with this disease. AFp, purified by affinity chromatography on retinol-binding protein linked to Sepharose, resembled plasma TTR in forming a stable tetrameric structure, and in its binding affinities for both thyroxine and retinol-binding protein. The structural studies included: (a) comparative peptide mappings by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after trypsin digestion; (b) cyanogen bromide cleavage studies; and (c) amino acid microsequence analysis of selected tryptic and CNBr peptides. On the basis of the known amino acid sequence of TTR, comparative tryptic peptide maps showed the presence of a single aberrant tryptic peptide (peptide 4, residues 22-34) in AFp as compared with TTR. This aberrant peptide contained a methionine residue, not present in normal tryptic peptide 4. CNBr cleavage of AFp produced two extra peptide fragments, which were demonstrated, respectively, by HPLC analysis and by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. Sequence analyses indicated the presence of a methionine-for-valine substitution at position 30 in AFp as compared with TTR. Thus, the purified amyloid fibril protein comprised a TTR variant with a methionine-forvaline substitution at position 30. A single nucleotide change in a possible codon for valine 30 could explain the substitution. The variant TTR was also present in the TTR isolated from the pooled sera of amyloidoses patients, together with larger (four- to six-fold) amounts of the normal TTR. Thus, in these patients, the variant TTR was circulating in plasma, along with larger amounts of normal TTR. We suggest that the variant TTR represents the specific biochemical cause of the disease, and that this abnormal form of TTR selectively deposits in tissues as the amyloid characteristic of the disease.
To investigate the effects of antiinflammatory steroids on in vivo prostaglandin production, urinary excretion rates of six different cyclo-oxygenase products were determined before, during, and after the administration of dexamethasone (1 mg/kg per d). Urine was collected in metabolism cages and was analyzed for prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha (PGE2 and PGF2 alpha) by radioimmunoassay after open-column chromatography; 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) were determined by radioimmunoassay after organic solvent extraction and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography; 7 alpha-hydroxy-5,11-di-keto-tetranorprostane-1,16-dioic acid (PGE-M) and 5 alpha,7 alpha-dihydroxy-11-keto-tetranorprostane-1,16-dioic-acid (PGF-M), the major urinary metabolites of prostaglandins E and F, were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by radioimmunoassay, respectively. Dexamethasone failed to cause a statistically significant change in the excretion rate of PGE2 (control, 250.4 +/- 40.8; dexamethasone, 297.6 +/- 78.7 ng/kg per d). In contrast, PGF2 alpha excretion decreased during administration of dexamethasone (from 1,036 +/- 228 to 449 +/- 158 ng/kg per d; P less than 0.05). The urinary excretion rates of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, TxB2, PGE-M, and PGF-M were not significantly altered by dexamethasone. (Control and dexamethasone values were, respectively, 63.6 +/- 7.9 and 103.5 +/- 17.9 ng/kg per d for 6-keto-PGF1 alpha; 13.0 +/- 3.0 and 14.8 +/- 2.1 ng/kg per d for TxB2; 1,251 +/- 217 and 1,905 +/- 573 ng/kg per d for PGE-M; and 4,131 +/- 611 and 4,793 +/- 600 ng/kg per d for PGF-M). Urine flow was significantly higher during dexamethasone administration (control, 159 +/- 24; dexamethasone, 305 +/- 29 ml/24 h; P less than 0.01). However, no correlation could be detected between changes in urine flow and changes in the excretion rate of any of the prostanoids investigated. It is concluded that the administration of pharmacological doses of glucocorticoids does not affect the basal rate of total body prostanoid synthesis.
The mechanism of action of gastrin was investigated using cytochemical quantitation of hydroxyl ion production (HIP) in guinea pig gastric oxyntic mucosa. The reaction depends upon the trapping of OH ions produced during gastric stimulation and is blocked by the benzimidazole, Hassle 149/94, which inhibits the K+ + H+-ATPase and by acetazolamide, an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase activity. It is thus a measure of hydroxyl ions produced during stimulation of the oxyntic cell and reflects upon hydrogen ion production. Gastrin (2.5 X 10(-16) -2.5 X 10(-12) M) caused a linear dose-dependent stimulation of HIP in the oxyntic cells. The response was biphasic, with an early peak at 90 s and a secondary rise at 240 s, which persisted for 10 min. Natural human gastrin (sulfated and nonsulfated) and the active COOH-terminal octapeptide fragment of gastrin stimulated HIP, whereas the biologically inert NH2-terminal (1-13) fragment of gastrin had no effect. The activation of oxyntic cell HIP by gastrin was neutralized by an antiserum directed towards the COOH-terminus of gastrin and not by nonimmune serum. Cimetidine (10(-5) M) blocked 25% and atropine (10(-5) M) had no effect on gastrin-stimulated HIP. EGTA (10(-3) M) and LaCl3 (10(-3) M) inhibited the action of gastrin by 67 and 52%, respectively. The calmodulin antagonists, trifluoperazine (10(-5) M), pimozide (10(-5) M), and the naphthalene sulfonamides, W-7 and W-13 (10(-5) M), inhibited gastrin-stimulated HIP by 45.6 38.5, 42.3, and 37.2%, respectively. Higher doses of W-7 and W-13 (10(-4) M) inhibited gastrin-stimulated HIP by 83 and 67%. The Ca2+ ionophore, A23187 (10(-4) M), stimulated HIP. Thus, it appears that gastrin stimulation of HIP is complex. 25% of its action is via a histamine-dependent pathway. 45% of its action is dependent upon extracellular Ca2+. Its action is also in part dependent upon a Ca2+/calmodulin mechanism.
Vigorous exercise causes a marked increase in cardiac output with only a minimal increase in measureable pulmonary vascular pressures. These changes in pulmonary hemodynamics should affect lung water and solute movement. On nine occasions, we measured the effect of normoxic exercise on lung lymph flow in four sheep and two goats with chronic lymph fistulas (wt = 15-25 kg). In addition, lymph flow was also measured on five occasions in sheep during exercise at reduced barometric pressures (430 and 380 mmHg). During normobaria, the animals ran at 3-5 km/h with 0-10% elevation of the treadmill for 15 to 85 min. Exercise on average caused a 100% increase in cardiac output, a 140% increase in lung lymph flow, and a slight but significant reduction in lymph to plasma concentration ratio (l/p) for total protein and albumin (mol wt = 70,000). There was a significant linear correlation between lymph flow and cardiac output (r = 0.87, P less than 0.01). There was no change in l/p for IgG (mol wt = 150,000) or IgM (mol wt = 900,000) and no significant change in mean pulmonary arterial (Ppa) or mean left atrial (Pla) pressures. Transition from normobaria to hypobaria caused an increase in Ppa but no change in Pla, cardiac output, or lymph flow. Exercise during hypobaria caused increases in lymph flow that were qualitatively similar to changes observed during normobaric exercise: there was a 60% increase in cardiac output, a 90% increase in lymph flow, and an 11% reduction in l/p for total protein. There was no change in l/p for albumin, IgG, or IgM, and no further change in Ppa. The increased lymph flow during normoxic and hypobaric exercise is best explained by an increase in pulmonary vascular surface area for fluid and protein exchange. Our results suggest that the normal ovine lung has the potential to nearly triple the amount of perfused microvascular surface area. This speculation is relevant to the interpretation of lymph flow data from other experiments.
A model of experimental postnatal hyperbilirubinemia in the rat has been developed utilizing the heme precursor delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to produce jaundice during a selective time period after birth. This time period is defined as that between 7 d postnatally, when the initial postpartum alterations of serum bilirubin and heme metabolism in the neonate have subsided, and 21 d, when the hepatic conjugation mechanism for the bile pigment appears fully developed. Administration of ALA in this time period led to a rapid, consistent, and significant dose-dependent increase in serum bilirubin levels in the newborn animals. Heme administration produced a qualitatively similar but enhanced effect. Both compounds, in addition, induced a dose-dependent increase in hepatic heme oxygenase activity concomitant with the increase in serum bilirubin levels. Neither compound increased serum bilirubin levels significantly when administered at or after 21 d postnatally. Administration of the synthetic metalloporphyrin, Sn-protoporphyrin, to ALA-treated neonates resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in serum bilirubin levels and hepatic heme oxygenase activity. Mn- and Zn-protoporphyrin in comparable doses did not significantly inhibit ALA-induced hyperbilirubinemia. Sn-protoporphyrin also inhibited the hyperbilirubinemia produced by heme in the suckling animals. ALA administration to newborn rats during the specific postnatal period described provides a simple and convenient model of experimental jaundice in the developing neonate which permits an examination of the potential ability of synthetic metalloporphyrins or other compounds to suppress induced hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn animal. The ability to induce a consistent and significant degree of jaundice in the postnatal rat by the method described may also be useful for other types of studies concerned with the biological disposition and effects of endogenously formed bilirubin in the neonate. The results of this study confirm in another model system the potent ability of Sn-protoporphyrin to suppress jaundice in the neonate, and suggest that suppression of heme oxidation by synthetic heme analogues may represent a useful therapeutic approach to the problem of severe hyperbilirubinemia in human premature newborn.
To assess the influence of diabetes mellitus in predisposing to pulmonary mucormycosis, a murine model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes was used. Intranasal inoculation of Rhizopus oryzae into diabetic mice resulted in mucormycotic infection with histopathology resembling pulmonary mucormycosis observed in humans. There was no mortality nor infection in inoculated normal mice. Diabetic mice had fatal infections caused by R. oryzae but significantly reduced mortality following inoculation with Aspergillus fumigatus. These findings reflect the specific enhanced susceptibility to mucormycosis observed in human diabetics. Normal bronchoalveolar macrophages formed part of an efficient defense against R. oryzae by inhibiting germination, the critical step in the conversion of R. oryzae to its tissue invasive phase. Bronchoalveolar macrophages inhibited spore germination in vitro and appeared to help prevent germination in vivo. In contrast, spore germination occurred in diabetic mice following intranasal inoculation. Diabetic bronchoalveolar macrophages had a decreased ability to attach to hyphae. In diabetic mice, bronchoalveolar macrophages could damage spores or hyphae of R. oryzae, but serum factors appeared to both promote spore germination and impair attachment of macrophages to spores. This murine model of diabetes mellitus provides an opportunity for evaluation of the relative importance of cell and serum-mediated host factors in the pathogenesis of mucormycosis.
Marrow radioiron uptake and marrow blood flow were measured in order to evaluate iron supply for erythropoiesis. Normal, phenylhydrazine-treated and bled animals were studied. The plasma iron turnover of seven normal rabbits was 1.49 +/- 0.22 mg/dl whole blood per d, of 11 rabbits treated 4 d before with phenylhydrazine was 5.16 +/- 1.81, and of four bled animals the plasma iron turnover was 3.75 +/- 1.61. The cardiac output and the percentage of blood flow to the marrow was increased in phenylhydrazine-treated and bled animals. Marrow iron flow in phenylhydrazine-treated animals was 38.3 +/- 32.6 micrograms/min per kg as compared with control values of 7.0 +/- 1.3 (P less than 0.01). This was due to an increase in marrow flow, an increase in plasma iron, and an increase in plasmatocrit. In bled animals, in spite of an increased marrow blood flow, marrow iron flow of 7.3 +/- 2.2 was similar to that of control animals due to a lower plasma iron concentration. The calculated marrow iron extraction of 3.7 +/- 2.4% in phenylhydrazine-treated animals was not different from that of control animals of 4.3 +/- 1.1, whereas extraction was increased in bled animals to 7.9 +/- 1.3 (P less than 0.01). In additional studies of transfused animals, acutely induced anemia was associated with an increased cardiac output, but also with a relative decrease in marrow flow, which left marrow iron supply unaffected. It would appear from these studies that an important mechanism for meeting the increased iron requirement of the hyperplastic erythroid marrow is an increase in marrow blood flow.
The hypothesis that an immune response is directed to components of brain tissue in Huntington's disease (HD) was examined. 27 patients with HD, 21 children of affected parents who showed no signs of disease, 6 spouses of HD patients, and 40 patients with other neurologic diseases were investigated. Leukocyte migration inhibition to antigens prepared from brain tissue was demonstrated in 26 HD patients and in 9 children. None of the six spouses reacted. 13 patients with other neurologic conditions (including 60% of patients after cerebrovascular accidents) reacted to rat brain extract. Fractionation of brain tissue indicated that the material responsible for reactions in these patients differed from that in HD. The material that elicited hypersensitivity in HD was not species specific, since it was found in rat, calf, human, and rabbit brain. It was not present in rat kidney, liver, or heart. Preliminary characterization showed that the material was protein in nature, contained sugar and lipid, and was heat labile. The finding of hypersensitivity in about half the unaffected children of HD parents suggests that it may precede the clinical onset of disease and serve as a marker for the gene.
In contrast to normal liver, it is known that in vivo hepatomas fail to decrease their rate of cholesterol biosynthesis in response to increased dietary cholesterol. From a consideration of the available data it has been hypothesized that the defect might lie in the delivery of cholesterol to the hepatoma cell. To study this further, lipoprotein interactions with rat hepatoma cells in tissue culture (HTC 7288C) and with the same cell line in vivo were investigated. HTC cells grown in a medium containing 10% calf serum exhibited saturable, specific, calcium-dependent binding of rat 125I-chylomicron remnants at 4 degrees C with half maximal saturation at 4.8 micrograms protein/ml and maximum binding of 96 ng protein/10(6) cells. At 4 degrees C, HTC cells also bound human 125I-low density lipoprotein (LDL) specifically, but bound it with a much lower affinity. These cells also exhibited specific binding for rat LDL and rat hypercholesterolemic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). All these lipoproteins were degraded by HTC cells. Thus, it was concluded that hepatoma cells possess lipoprotein receptors that recognize and process LDL, VLDL, and chylomicron remnants. Overnight incubation of HTC cells in lipid-depleted medium containing 0.5 microM compactin increased binding of rat chylomicron remnants and of hypercholesterolemic VLDL approximately 1.7-fold without a significant change in binding affinity. LDL binding also increased, by approximately 3.5-fold. These changes were also observed when binding and internalization were measured at 37 degrees C. After HTC cells were incubated in lipid-depleted medium, the rate at which [14C]acetate was incorporated into [14C]cholesterol increased 2.5-fold. Inclusion of rat chylomicron remnants at 5-10 micrograms protein/ml prevented this increase in acetate incorporation or, if added after culture in lipid-depleted medium, reduced the increased levels back to control values. However, the rate of acetate incorporation into cholesterol by cells grown in complete medium was not decreased to levels below base line by rat chylomicron remnants. Inclusion of human LDL only partially prevented the rise or only partially reduced the increased levels back to control and did not reduce control levels below base line. Hypercholesterolemic VLDL, which contain more cholesterol per particle than chylomicron remnants, did reduce [14C]acetate incorporation to below control levels. Therefore, the intracellular mechanism for down regulation of cholesterol synthesis by lipoproteins is intact in these cells. Based on these results we hypothesized that a relative lack of lipoprotein receptors expressed by hepatomas in vivo in comparison with those expressed by normal liver would explain the apparent absence of feedback inhibition of cholesterol synthesis. Consistent with this hypothesis, the binding of chylomicron remnants to liver cell membranes was 3-5 times greater than to membranes from tumors grown in vivo subcutaneously or intramuscularly. Membranes from tumor cells grown in vitro bound remnants least well. It is proposed that the relative lack of receptors places the hepatoma at a disadvantage in competing with the liver for lipoproteins of dietary origin and may account for the lack of feedback regulation of cholesterol synthesis in hepatomas.
We examined the ability of DNase I to digest DNA that was contained with DNA-anti-DNA immune complexes. IgG isolated from the sera of 20 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and containing antibodies to DNA was incubated with double-stranded DNA to form immune complexes. Excess DNase was added, and digestion of DNA was monitored by the conversion of DNA to TCA soluble products. IgG from 8 of the 20 SLE patients protected DNA from degradation by DNase in direct proportion to the amount of DNA bound to IgG as measured in the Farr binding assay. Using IgG from these sera, we showed that the DNA protected from degradation remained bound to IgG during digestion and was 35-45 base pairs in size. The size of this fragment is the same as that which has been proposed to be the minimal size necessary for monogamous bivalent binding of IgG to DNA. We therefore compared the ability of F(ab')2 and Fab' to protect DNA from DNase digestion and demonstrated that the bivalent F(ab')2 fragments were protective, but that the univalent Fab' fragments were not. These results suggest that some antibodies to DNA that bind to DNA via monogamous bivalent binding can protect a 35-45-base pair DNA fragment from DNase digestion. The implications of this finding are discussed with regard to the in vivo behavior and potential pathogenicity of small DNA-anti-DNA immune complexes.
Rabbit antithrombin III (AT), purified by heparin-agarose, was labeled with iodine-131 by either the glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase or iodine monochloride techniques. When intravenously injected, the disappearance of the 131I-AT from plasma was characterized by rapid initial decreases, and three-exponential equations were required for best fit of the plasma disappearance curves. This rapid 131I-AT removal was not caused by denaturation, as shown by comparison with results obtained when 131I-AT was biologically screened (injected into a first rabbit, and then transferred 16 h later in whole plasma to a second for kinetic evaluation) before injection. Thus, the same rapid initial loss of plasma 131I-AT was observed with screened preparations, and the plasma fractional catabolic rates of 0.716 +/- 0.048 and 0.673 +/- 0.051 day-1 for unscreened and screened 131I-AT were not significantly different. These results support the hypothesis that a vascular-endothelial AT compartment is present in rabbit. The fractions of the total-body AT in the plasma, the vascular-endothelial and the extravascular compartments were 0.337 +/- 0.031, 0.178 +/- 0.056, and 0.485 +/- 0.069, respectively. Two three-compartment kinetic models are discussed. The first pictures AT as distributing independently between plasma and two other compartments, and the second sees AT as first passing to the vascular-endothelial compartment, and then directly into the extravascular compartment. The plasma 131I-AT kinetic data was consistent with both models, but the sizes of the vascular-endothelial compartments were best predicted by the second. If AT catabolism was assigned to the plasma, both models generally underpredicted the whole-body radioactivities, while assignment of breakdown to the extravascular compartment generally resulted in overpredictions. This suggests that AT catabolism occurs from both plasma and extravascular compartments.
Protein C is a circulating proenzyme which, upon activation, exerts a potent anticoagulant activity. Infusion of activated bovine protein C into dogs is accompanied by an increase of circulating tissue plasminogen activator (PA) activity. However, the evidence that human protein C shares a similar profibrinolytic capacity is still lacking. Therefore, we investigated the profibrinolytic properties of human protein C in squirrel monkeys (Samiri sciureus). Injection of activated human protein C resulted in prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time but was not associated with increased fibrinolytic activity of blood. Similarly, activation of endogenous protein C (up to 20-30%) by infusion of thrombin-thrombomodulin complex markedly reduced blood coagulability without being accompanied by an increase of circulating PA activity. The in vivo-generated anticoagulant activity was identified as activated protein C by the following observations. It was neutralized by rabbit anti-human protein C-IgG, was slowly inhibited by plasma but not by anti-thrombin III, was adsorbable on barium citrate, and expressed amidolytic activity. Activation of protein C appeared to be selective since other parameters such as thrombin time, platelet count, fibrinogen, and factor V levels were unaffected by thrombin-thrombomodulin infusion. Infusion of human plasma derived from whole blood incubated in vitro with human activated protein C also did not induce a fibrinolytic response, suggesting that no second messengers with PA-releasing activity were being generated in blood. It is concluded that in a primate, neither the administration of activated human protein C nor the activation of endogenous protein C are associated with an increase of fibrinolytic activity. These findings question the role of this enzyme in the regulation of PA release in man.
The electrical nature of active NaCl transport and the significance of a basolateral membrane chloride conductance were examined in isolated perfused rabbit proximal convoluted tubules (PCT). PCT were perfused with a high chloride solution that simulated late proximal tubular fluid and were bathed in an albumin solution that simulated rabbit serum in the control and recovery periods. The electrical nature of NaCl transport was examined by bathing the tubules in a high chloride albumin solution where there were no anion gradients. Volume reabsorption (Jv) during the control and recovery period was 0.56 and 0.51 nl/mm X min, respectively, and 0.45 nl/mm X min when the tubules were bathed in a high chloride bath. The transepithelial potential difference (PD) during the control and recovery periods averaged 2.3 mV, but decreased to 0.0 mV in the absence of anion gradients, which indicated that NaCl transport is electroneutral. Further evidence that NaCl transport is electroneutral was obtained by examining the effect of addition of 0.01 mM ouabain in PCT perfused and bathed with high chloride solutions. The Jv was 0.54 nl/mm X min in the control period and not statistically different from zero after inhibition of active transport. The PD was not different from zero in both periods. Two groups of studies examined the role of basolateral membrane Cl- conductance in NaCl transport. First, depolarizing the basolateral membrane with 2 mM bath Ba++ did not significantly affect Jv or PD. Second, the effect of the presumptive Cl- conductance inhibitor anthracene-9-CO2H was examined. Anthracene-9-CO2H did not significantly affect Jv or PD. In conclusion, these data show that NaCl transport in the PCT is electroneutral and transcellular and provide evidence against a significant role for basolateral membrane chloride conductance in the rabbit PCT.
We evaluated the effects of the diterpene compound forskolin in human myocardial adenylate cyclase preparations, isolated trabeculae and papillary muscles derived from failing human hearts, and acutely instrumented dogs. Forskolin was a potent, powerful activator of human myocardial adenylate cyclase and produced maximal effects that were 4.82 (normally functioning left ventricle) and 6.13 (failing left ventricle) fold greater than isoproterenol. In contrast to isoproterenol, forskolin retained full activity in membrane preparations derived from failing hearts. In cyclase preparations, forskolin demonstrated unique substrate and Mg2+ kinetic properties that could be distinguished from hormone receptor-coupled agonists or fluoride ion. The adenylate cyclase stimulatory effect of forskolin was synergistic with isoproterenol, apparently due to the location of forskolin activation being beyond the level of hormone receptor-agonist in the receptor-cyclase complex. Forskolin was a potent positive inotrope in failing human myocardium, producing a stimulation of contraction that was similar to isoproterenol. Finally, in open chest dogs forskolin was a positive inotropic agent that reduced preload and afterload. We conclude that forskolin belongs to a class of agents that may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of congestive heart failure.
In vitro the rate of protein C activation by thrombin is significantly accelerated by two distinct cofactors (a) the endothelial cell surface protein, thrombomodulin, and (b) human coagulation Factor Va. We have recently reported that the activity of Factor Va is contained in the 78,000-D light chain. In this study we have investigated the effects of Factor Va and its light chain on the activation of protein C in the presence of cultured endothelial cells. Thrombin-catalyzed protein C activation on human umbilical vein endothelial cells was enhanced by Factor Va. The ability of Factor Va to stimulate protein C activation on these cells was saturated at 50 nM Factor Va and was observed at several protein C concentrations. Isolated Factor Va light chain in concentrations up to 50 nM also accelerated protein C activation on endothelial cells, but higher concentrations inhibited the reaction. The effects of Factor Va or its light chain on protein C activation were also shown on a mouse hemangioma cell line but not on human fibroblasts nor on a human amelanotic melanoma cell line. Protein C activation on endothelial cells was partially inhibited by a goat anti-thrombomodulin antibody and further addition of a polyclonal rabbit anti-Factor V(Va) antibody resulted in additional inhibition. Endothelial cells grown in medium supplemented with human serum, devoid of Factor V coagulant activity, contained cell surface Factor V(Va) (approximately 15,000 molecules/cell) as measured by the binding of a monoclonal IgG directed against Factor V(Va). These cells also bound an additional 6,000-10,000 molecules Factor Va per cell as determined by direct binding studies using 125I-Factor Va. We suggest that thrombomodulin and Factor Va act in concert to regulate protein C activation on the surface of endothelial cells.
The erythrocytes of a patient with the so-called "high ATP syndrome" were characterized by a high ATP content and low 2,3-diphosphoglycerate level. The pyruvate kinase activity was specifically increased (about twice the normal level). After separation of the erythrocytes according to age by discontinuous Percoll density centrifugation, the pyruvate kinase activity was found to be increased in all Percoll fractions. Pyruvate kinase of the patient's cells was characterized by a decreased K0.5 for the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate and no inhibition by ATP. The Michaelis constant (Km) value for ADP, the nucleotide specificity, the thermostability, pH optimum, and immunological specific activity were normal. It is concluded that the high pyruvate kinase activity is due to a shift in the R(elaxed) in equilibrium T(ight) equilibrium to the R(elaxed) form.
In the disease cystic fibrosis (CF), pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common clinical complication that determines most morbidity and almost all excess mortality. We postulated that in this disease a defect in Pseudomonas-reactive IgG antibodies may contribute to chronic Pseudomonas infections. Bronchoalveolar lavages were performed upon 13 patients with CF, 7 patients with chronic bronchitis characterized by recurrent Pseudomonas infections, and 4 normal volunteers. The levels of various proteins important to host defenses and proteases were determined; enzyme inhibition studies were performed. CF respiratory immunoglobulin levels were significantly elevated when compared with both normals and patients with chronic bronchitis (P less than 0.05). Albumin and transferrin levels were decreased in the CF lung fluids. CF elastolytic activity was strikingly elevated (means = 6.02 micrograms/mg total protein) and the inhibitory profile suggested such activity resembled a serine-proteinase. Alpha-1-antitrypsin antigenic levels were not altered in CF respiratory fluids. There was a tendency for the lavage IgG to fall as elastase levels rose (r = -0.29). IgG opsonins for two Pseudomonas immunotypes were isolated with affinity chromatography for functional and immunochemical studies. Bacterial phagocytic rates in the presence of these Pseudomonas-reactive IgG opsonins derived from CF lavage fluid were depressed (0.3% uptake/unit time) when compared with similarly titered positive controls (uptake = 1.3%/unit time, P less than 0.001). Additionally, normal pulmonary macrophage intracellular killing of Pseudomonas was severely altered in the presence of opsonins derived from CF respiratory fluids. At some time points, less than 30% of the bacteria were killed. CF IgG opsonins contain a cleavage fragment (100,000 D, 5S sedimentation coefficient) with antigenic determinants similar to the Fab portion of IgG. The presence of such a fragment was inversely correlated with phagocytic functional activity. Intact IgG comprised as little as 18% of the CF lavage fluid specimens. Aliquots of intact human IgG, when mixed with the CF opsonins, augmented Pseudomonas uptake and improved intracellular killing. Conversely, peptide fragments of IgG opsonins, which are proteolytically derived in vitro, duplicated in our system the defect observed with opsonins derived from CF lung fluids; bacterial uptake was inversely related to the concentration of F(ab')2 and to a greater degree, to Fc present in the opsonic mixture. We concluded that IgG respiratory opsonins are fragmented, inhibiting phagocytosis and serving a permissive role in the chronic Pseudomonas pulmonary infection in the disease CF.
The effect of ketone bodies on glucose production (Ra) and utilization (Rd) was investigated in the 24-h starved, conscious unrestrained miniature pig. Infusing Na-DL-beta-OH-butyrate (Na-DL-beta-OHB) and thus shifting the blood pH from 7.40 to 7.56 resulted in a decrease of Ra by 52% and of Rd by 45%, as determined by the isotope dilution technique. Simultaneously, the concentrations of arterial insulin and glucagon were slightly enhanced, whereas the plasma levels of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, alanine, alpha-amino-N, and free fatty acids (FFA) were all reduced. Infusion of Na-bicarbonate, which yielded a similar shift in blood pH, did not mimick these effects. Infusion of equimolar amounts of the ketoacid, yielding a blood pH of 7.35, induced similar metabolic alterations with respect to plasma glucose, Ra, Rd, and insulin; however, plasma alanine and alpha-amino-N increased. Infusing different amounts of Na-DL-beta-OHB resulting in plasma steady state levels of ketones from 0.25 to 1.5 mM had similar effects on arterial insulin and glucose kinetics. No dose dependency was observed. Prevention of the Na-DL-beta-OHB-induced hypoalaninemia by simultaneous infusion of alanine (1 mumol/kg X min) did not prevent hypoglycemia. Infusion of Na-DL-beta-OHB plus insulin (0.4 mU/kg X min) showed no additive effect on the inhibition of Ra. Ketones did not inhibit the insulin-stimulated metabolic clearance rate (MCR) for glucose. Infusion of somatostatin (0.2 micrograms/kg X min) initially decreased plasma glucose, Ra, and Rd, which was followed by an increase in plasma glucose and Ra; however, on infusion of somatostatin plus Na-DL-beta-OHB, hypoglycemia and the reduced Ra were maintained. In the anaesthetized 24-h starved miniature pig, Na-DL-beta-OHB infusion decreased the hepatic exchange for glucose, lactate, and FFA, whereas the exchange for glycerol, alanine, and alpha-amino-N as well as liver perfusion rate were unaffected. Simultaneously, portal glucagon and insulin as well as hepatic insulin extraction rate were elevated. Leg exchange for glucose, lactate, glycerol, alanine, alpha-amino-N, and FFA were decreased, while ketone body utilization increased. Repeated infusion of Na-DL-beta-OHB at the fourth, fifth, and sixth day of starvation in the conscious, unrestrained mini-pig resulted in a significant drop in urinary nitrogen (N)-excretion. However, this effect was mimicked by infusing equimolar amounts of Na-bicarbonate. In contrast, when only the ketoacid was given, urinary N-excretion accelerated. To summarize: (a) Ketone bodies decrease endogenous glucose production via an insulin-dependent mechanism; in addition, ketones probably exert a direct inhibitory action on gluconeogenesis. The ketone body-induced hypoalaninemia does not contribute to this effect. (b) The counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia is reduced by ketones. (c) As a consequence of the decrease in R(a), glucose utilization declines during ketone infusion. (d)The insulin-stimulated MCR for glucose is not affected by ketones. (e) Ketones in their physiological moiety do not show a protein-sparing effect.
Canine tracheal epithelium secretes Cl and absorbs Na; the energy for both is derived from the activity of the basolateral membrane Na-K-ATPase. These properties allowed us to examine the energetics of Cl secretion by directly comparing the metabolic cost of Cl transport with the metabolic cost of Na transport. We measured the change in short-circuit current and O2 consumption rate that was produced by a variety of maneuvers that alter Na and/or Cl transport rate. The experimental interventions included the use of the secretagogue epinephrine, the Cl transport inhibitor bumetanide, the Na transport inhibitor amiloride, the Na-K-ATPase inhibitor ouabain, and ion substitutions. The O2 consumption rates required for Na and Cl transport were compared in each individual tissue. The results indicate that the oxygen cost of Cl transport is significantly less than the oxygen cost of Na transport: two to four Cl ions are transported for the same metabolic cost that is required to transport one Na ion. These findings suggest that the basolateral membrane Na-dependent Cl entry step couples the entry of more than one Cl ion to each Na ion.
Eosinophils are a common component of the inflammation of the lower respiratory tract that characterizes the interstitial lung disorders. Bronchoalveolar lavage analyses (n = 680) of 251 patients with interstitial lung disease demonstrated that eosinophils represented greater than 5% of the effector cells comprising the alveolitis in 20% of all lavages. In contrast, lavage of normal individuals (n = 117) showed that eosinophils were never greater than 5% of the total effector cells recovered. To evaluate a possible role for eosinophils in mediating some of the cellular and connective tissue matrix derangements of the lung parenchyma found in interstitial disease, eosinophils were evaluated for the presence of proteases capable of cleaving connective tissue proteins found in the lung and for the ability to mediate cytotoxicity to lung parenchymal cells. Evaluation of guinea pig and human eosinophils demonstrated that eosinophil granules contained a collagenase that specifically cleaved human collagen types I and III, the two major connective tissue components of the human lung parenchyma. In contrast, the eosinophil did not contain an elastase or a nonspecific neutral protease. The eosinophil collagenase appeared to be a metalloprotease, as it was inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetate but not by phenylmethanesulfonyl-fluoride or alpha 1-antitrypsin. The eosinophil also has the capacity to injure lung parenchymal cells. Without further stimulation, eosinophils purified from peritoneal exudates of guinea pigs demonstrated spontaneous cytotoxicity for human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1), cat lung epithelial cells (AK-D) and rat lung mesothelial cells (I6B). Under identical conditions, the epithelial cells were more sensitive to eosinophil-mediated cytotoxicity than the fibroblasts or mesothelial cells (P less than 0.01), consistent with the clinical observation that in the interstitial disorders, the alveolar epithelial cells are damaged more commonly than fibroblasts or pleural cells. The eosinophil-mediated cytotoxicity could be partially inhibited by the antioxidants catalase and dimethylsulfoxide suggesting that toxic oxygen radicals play a role in mediating the cellular damage. Importantly, eosinophils purified from bronchoalveolar lavage of human interstitial lung disease also demonstrated spontaneous cytotoxicity for lung epithelial cells. These observations demonstrate that eosinophils are frequent participants of the alveolitis of the interstitial lung disorders and suggest that these cells have the potential to damage the parenchymal cells and collagen matrix of the lower respiratory tract.
Hyperglycemia has been shown to induce arterial hypoxemia in the chronically catheterized fetal sheep. To investigate the mechanism behind this glucose-induced hypoxemia, eight pregnant ewes and their fetuses were studied. Fetal glucose infusion (11.9 +/- 0.6 mg glucose/kg per min) was associated with a doubling of the fetal plasma glucose concentration with concomitant elevation of the umbilical vein-distal arterial O2 content difference by 24 h of infusion (P less than 0.01). Calculated fetal O2 consumption increased from 8.1 +/- 0.4 ml/kg per min in the control period to a maximum value of 10.6 +/- 0.3 ml/kg per min by third infusion day (P less than 0.01), which is an increase of approximately 30%. The degree of stimulation of fetal O2 consumption was related to the degree of fetal hyperglycemia but not to the degree of fetal hyperinsulinemia. The increase in fetal O2 consumption was accompanied by a significant increase in fetal O2 extraction with no change in either fetal O2 delivery or fetal blood O2 affinity. In addition, fetal hypercapnea with a mild fetal respiratory acidosis was induced by fetal hyperglycemia. The increase in fetal arterial PCO2 was linearly related (P less than 0.001) to the magnitude of increase in fetal O2 consumption. These studies suggest that chronic fetal hyperglycemia induces a state of accelerated fetal oxidative metabolism and may be important in explaining the etiology behind certain unusual findings in human infants of diabetic mothers.
The structural and functional heterogeneity of HLA-DR4-associated specificities was investigated in patients with seropositive juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, a DR4-associated disease. Using a combination of HLA-D analysis by mixed lymphocyte culture and electrophoretic analysis of immunoprecipitated Ia molecules by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels, we observed a surprisingly homogeneous pattern of HLA-D antigen expression. All patients expressed common structural products of the DR and DS loci, and 7/12 homozygous DR4 patients expressed a rare and subtle HLA-D heterozygous phenotype.
Addition of untreated or glutaraldehyde-fixed human erythrocytes decreased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated acute edematous injury in isolated rat lungs, H2O2-induced damage to cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells, and H2O2-dependent oxidation of reduced cytochrome C in vitro. The results suggest that intact erythrocytes can scavenge H2O2, and as a result, protect the lung and possibly other tissues from damage.
Previously considered to represent a single genetic disorder, autosomal recessive ichthyosis was examined in clinical and lipid biochemical studies of 18 patients with this condition and instead disclosed to be two distinct diseases. Six patients displayed clinical features of classical lamellar ichthyosis (LI), which is characterized by monomorphous features, including large, dark, platelike scales, severe ectropion, and a uniformly severe, unremitting course. 11 patients displayed clinical features of nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE) characterized by fine white scales, prominent erythroderma, a milder course, and a variable prognosis. CIE could be separated biochemically from LI by the invariable presence of elevated quantities of n-alkanes in scale (CIE, 24.8 +/- 1.9% vs. LI, 7.2 +/- 1.6%, and normal, 6.5 +/- 0.9%), which suggested a primary disorder in neutral lipid metabolism. In light of the distinctive clinical features of each, these biochemical studies indicate that autosomal recessive ichthyosis comprises two distinct disorders.
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